Native Cultures

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Course Information
Discipline(s): 
Anthropology
Terms offered: 
Fall
Credits: 
3
Language of instruction: 
Spanish
Contact Hours: 
45
Prerequisites: 

This course is directed to students that have taken at least one semester of Social Sciences courses: History, Economy, International Relations, Latin American Studies, Law, and Sociology among Others.  Students must also have done 4 semesters of Spanish in their home university.

Description: 

This course provides an anthropological overview of the rich aboriginal patrimony of Chile, examining ancient and present expressions of Chilean native cultures: Aymaras, Atacameños, Diaguitas, Pascuenses and Mapuches.  Their correlations as well as the influence from other cultures of South America are reviewed in terms of their way of life, social organization, and arts. Current political, social and economic issues also are addressed.  Course material supports Orientation field trip for all students to major historical and archeological sites.

Attendance policy: 

Attendance and punctuality are mandatory for all IES Abroad classes, including course-related excursions. Any exams, tests, presentations, or other work missed due to student absences can only be rescheduled in cases of documented medical or family emergencies.

If a student misses more than 1.5 classes (for courses taught once a week) or 2.5 classes (for courses taught twice a week) in any course, the final grade will be reduced by one-third of a letter grade (for example, A- to B+) for every additional unexcused absence. Six absences in any course will result in a failing grade.

Punctuality: Students who are late to class will receive a .5 absence. Arriving in class more than 15 minutes late will result in 1 absence.

Learning outcomes: 

By the end of this course, students will be able to:

  • Know and identify the main ethnic groups that currently inhabit the Chilean territory from an anthropological focus.
  • Develop a critical perspective around the construction of ethnic identities in the contemporary world.
  • Recognize from a contemporary perspective the transformation processes and the resistance that the main ethnic groups that currently inhabit in Chilean territory.
  • Identify the distinct historical contexts and stages of the colonization process that the main ethnic groups have experienced in current Chilean territory.
Method of presentation: 
  • Presentations
  • Student participation
  • Discussions
  • Assigned readings
Field study: 
  • Chilean Museum of Pre-Columbian Art
  • Ruka de la Pintana
Required work and form of assessment: 
  • Midterm exam - 20%
  • Group activity - 10%
  • Moodle forum - 10%
  • Student presentations - 20%
  • FIeld studies - 20%
  • Final exam - 20%

Midterm
The objective of the midterm quiz is to assess students’ acquired knowledge in order to evaluate the content that has been taught.

Group Activity
The objective of the Group Activity is that students collectively (in groups of 2 -4 depending on class size) read a mandatory text that is related with cultural relativism, developing a reflection of the text based on a question given by the professor.

Moodle forum
The Moodle Forum is an instance for students to develop a debate regarding Mapuche peoples current situation.  The professor will ask a question regarding “El Despojo” documental which should be seen by students before Session 8.

Presentations
The presentation is an instance of group work in which student must critically read a text that is assigned by the professor and present the most important aspects in order to explain the text to the rest of the class.

Field studies
The purpose of field studies is to complement the course contents with the in situ experience from two perspectives: on one side with the visit to the Pre-Columbian Museum, activity that is part of the introduction of the original cultures in Chile.  On the other hand, a visit to the Ruka in La Pintana, an activity related to the unit dedicated to Mapuche people.

Final
The final exam is a synthesis of the academic journey of this course.  By completing this exam students will attest to their learning/knowledge of the course contents.

content: 

Session

Content

Assignments

Session 1 Objetive: To introduce the origins of anthropology and key concepts of the discipline to students, that will be central to the understanding of the different cultures studied in the course. The specific concepts revised are: identity, culture and cultural syncretism. Readings: Michel Izard, Pierre Bonte (1996) Diccionario Akal de Etnología y Antropología. Ediciones Akal.
Session 2 Objective: Incorporate the cultural relativism concept and ethnocentrism by doing a practical group exercise.

Readings: “ Ritos corporales entre los Nacierema”. Horace Miner

Group Activity. Text: “ Ritos corporales entre los Nacirema” . Upload into Moodle.

Session 3 Objective: To learn the different pre-Columbian cultures that inhabited the American continent, with an emphasis on the impact of the Inka Empire on the original cultures of the Current Chilean territory. Field Study to the Chilean Museum of Pre-Columbian Art. Upload into Moodle.
Session 4 Objective: To analyze the history and cultura of the Aymara people considering the different transformation processes they have experienced before the arrival of the Spaniards to Current times.

Readings: Van Kessel, Juan ( 1996) “Los Aymaras contemporáneos de Chile”. En Culturas de Chile, Etnografía. Editorial Andrés Bello. Santiago.

Van Kessel, Juan ( 1996) “La Cosmovisión Aymara”. En Culturas de Chile, Etnografía. Editorial Andrés Bello.

Session 5 Objetive: To analyze the history and cultura of the Atacamameño people considering the different transformation processes they have experienced before the arrival of the Spaniards to Current times. Readings: Castro Victoria y Martínez José Luis (1996) Poblaciones Indígenas de Atacama”. En Culturas de Chile, Etnografía. Editorial Andrés Bello. Santiago
Session 6 Objetive: Enhance the use of students’ Spanish by Reading, analysis and presentation of a text in Spanish.

Students’ Presentation:

Group 1: Claudio Mercado et. al. “Carnaval de y Aiquina”.Lom.1996.

Group 2: Anita Carrasco e Ilona Murillo “El sistema de mandas en dos fiestas religiosas”. Profesor guía: José Bengoa. Final Thesis to become an Antropologist and Licensed in Social Athropology.

Session 7 Objective: Analyze the history and culture of the Mapuche people considering the different transformation processes that they experienced during the Spanish conquest.

Readings: Aldunate, Carlos (1996) “Mapuche: Gente de la Tierra”. En Culturas de Chile, Etnografía. Editorial Andrés Bello. Santiago.

Documentary: “We Tripantu en Cerro Navia”. Taller Etnográfico Audiovisual Yekusimaala. 1996. (25 min.)

Session 8

Objective 1: Analyze the history and culture of the Mapuche people considering the different processes they experienced after the Independence of Chile. Special emphasis will be given to territorial reduction policies, the Agrarian Reform, the Popular Unity, the Dictatorship and the democratic governments.

Objective 2: To enhance the students’ Spanish by having them read, analyze and present a text in Spanish.

Sudent Presentation:

Group 3 :Carlos Munizaga. “Estructuras Transicionales” de la migración de los araucanos de hoy a la ciudad de Santiago de Chile.1961 (Students’ Presentation)

Moodle Forum on Documentary “El Despojo”. Dauno Totoro. 2004 (70 min).

Session 9

Objective: To learn and understand the Current reality of the Mapuche people in the city of Santiago

Field Study to Ruka de la Pintana. Upload into Moodle

 
Session 10 Midterm Exam  
Session 11 Objective: Analyze the history and cultura of the peoples of the extreme south. Considering the main transformations experiences by the Kaweskar and Selknam starting from their contact with the occidental world. Readings: Ortiz-Troncoso, Omar (1996). Los Pueblos Indígenas del Extremo Sur “Los últimos canoeros”. En Culturas de Chile, Etnografía. Editorial Andrés Bello. Santiago.
Session 12 Objective: To enhance the students’ Spanish by having them read, analyze and present a text in Spanish.

Students’ Presentation.:

Group 4: Anne Chapman “Los selk´nam: vida de los onas”. Buenos Aires: Emecé, 1982.

Group 5: Dánae Fiore.”Pinturas corporales en el fin del mundo: Una introducción al arte visual selk'nam y yamana” Revista Chungará. 2005 (Exposición Alumnos)

Documentary exhibit: Calafate, Zoológicos Humanos .El Taller Producciones / Canal 13 (Chile).Dv cam 4:3 / Super 8mm. Duración:96. Christian Báez, Hans Mülchi B.

Session 13 Objective: Abalyze the Rapa Nui history and culture. Considering the main transformations experienced due to contact with the occidental world in three stages: the contact with travelers, the relationship with France and the link with the Chilean government. Documentary Exhibit: “Mate ote Maea: Ojos de Piedra”. Marcelo Ferrari. 1990( 50 min) Nueva Imagen y El Canelo de Nos.(Museo Chileno Precolombino)
Session 14 Final Exam  
Session 15 Final Session: Grades and final evaluation of the course  

 

Required readings: 
  • Aldunate, Carlos (1996) “Mapuche: Gente de la Tierra”. En Culturas de Chile, Etnografía. Editorial Andrés Bello. Santiago.
  • Bengoa, José (comp.) (2004) La memoria olvidada historia de los pueblos indígenas de chile. Cuadernos bicentenario. Santiago.
  • Bonfil, Batalla, Guillermo. (1985) [1995] “Descolonización y Cultura Propia. En Obras Escogidas. Editora INI-INAH, México DF, México.
  • Carrasco, Anita y Murillo Ilona  El sistema de mandas en dos fiestas religiosas. Profesor guía: José Bengoa. Tesis para optar al título de Antropólogo y al grado de Licenciado en Antropología Social.  Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano
  • Castro Victoria y Martínez José Luis (1996) Poblaciones Indígenas de Atacama”. En Culturas de Chile, Etnografía. Editorial Andrés Bello.Santiago.
  • Chapman Anne (1982)  Los selk´nam: vida de los onas. Emecé, Buenos Aires.
  • Izard, Michel y Pierre Bonte Pierre. (1996)  Diccionario Akal de Etnología y Antropología.  Akal. Madrid.
  • Fiore, Dánae (2005) Fotografía y pintura corporal en Tierra del Fuego: un encuentro de subjetividades” Revista Chilena de Antropología Visual – número 6 - Santiago, diciembre 2005 -55/73 pp. - ISSN 0718-876x. (www.antropologiavisual.cl)
  • Mc Call, Grant “El Pasado en el presente Rapanui (Isla de Pascua)”. En Culturas de Chile, Etnografía. Editorial Andrés Bello. 1996.
  • Mercado, Mercado  et. al. (1997)  Carnaval de y Aiquina. Lom Ediciones. Santiago.
  • Miner, Horace Ritos Corporales entre los Nacirema. (Traducción personal entregada por la profesora en clases)
  • Munizaga,  Carlos. (1961) Estructuras Transicionales de la migración de los araucanos de hoy a la ciudad de Santiago de Chile. Centro de Estudios Antropológicos, Santiago
  • Ortiz-Troncoso, Omar (1996). Los Pueblos Indígenas del Extremo Sur  “Los últimos canoeros”. En Culturas de Chile, Etnografía. Editorial Andrés Bello. Santiago.
  • Philipi Rudolph.” La isla de Pascua y sus Habitantes”. Santiago de Chile. Imprenta  Nacional. 1873. (versión digital en www.memoriachilena.cl)
  • Van  Kessel, Juan ( 1996) “Los Aymaras contemporáneos de Chile”. En Culturas de Chile, Etnografía. Editorial Andrés Bello. Santiago.
  • Van  Kessel, Juan ( 1996) “La Cosmovisión Aymara”. En Culturas de Chile, Etnografía. Editorial Andrés Bello.

Films:

  • Documental. “We Tripantu en Cerro Navia”. Taller Etnográfico Audiovisual Yekusimaala. 1996. (25 min.)
  • Documental “El Despojo”. Dauno Totoro. 2004 (70 min).
  • Exhibición Documental: “Mate ote Maea: Ojos de Piedra”. Marcelo Ferrari. 1990(50 min) Nueva Imagen y El Canelo de Nos (Museo Chileno Precolombino)

Methodology:

  • Garcia Ferrando, M., Ibañez, J. and Alvira, F. El análisis de la realidad social: métodos y técnicas de investigación. Editorial Alianza. Madrid. 1986.
  • Ibañez, J. “Cómo se realiza una investigación mediante grupos de discusión.” En M. Garcia Ferrando, J. Ibañez y F. Alvira. (Eds.). El análisis de la realidad social: Métodos y Técnicas de investigación. Editorial Alianza. Madrid. 1986.
  • Taylor, S.J. and Bogdan, R. Introducción a los métodos cualitativos de investigación: La Búsqueda de significados. Editorial Paidós. Barcelona. 1996.