Leading Across Cultures: Principles and Practice

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Course Information
International Business
Terms offered: 
Fall, Spring
Language of instruction: 
Contact Hours: 


Additional student cost: 



This course looks at questions of leadership in the modern world, in the domains of business, policy-making, and service organizations. As many young people want to make a difference or will go on to jobs in which they will be faced with questions of “changing” the world or simply their organization, the course will attempt to show them how leadership may (or not) make that possible, given the cultural context.The overarching goal of the course is to analyze and develop an understanding of what leadership means, particularly in an intercultural context that is characteristic of our global world, and to provide students with resources to enhance their own leadership abilities.

This course evaluates current theoretical models of leadership and leadership characteristics in the context of the local culture and also identifies commonalities of leadership that are recognized across cultures. Thecourse first presents what makes good leaders and what skills they need to lead effectively. We will survey a variety of approaches to the question and analyze definitions of essential concepts. We will also consider how leadership is defined in different cultural contexts. The rising field of global leadership studies identifies the cultural context as one of the important dimensions in analyzing leadership styles and how leaders meet ethical challenges, negotiate conflict, manage social dynamics through communication and team-building, and bring about change in a global environment. Finally, the course will analyze selected issues that decision makers have to face in different sectors: business, politics, public sector and international affairs. We will assess the best way to lead change, motivate followers and cope with conflicts.
Learning outcomes: 
By the end of the course the students will be able to:
  1. Analyze the complexities of leading across cultures in terms of multidisciplinary and theoretical frameworks. 
  2. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the moral and ethical responsibilities of leaders in a global environment. 
  3. Evaluate the social dynamics of leadership and importance of building relationships in multiple cultural contexts. 
  4. Observe and identify leadership and communication styles that are culture-specific and styles that are common across cultures. 
  5. Describe techniques to meet the challenges of leading, managing, and negotiating across cultures.
  6. Analyze one’s personal leadership style in terms of culturally-determined values, beliefs, and practices; identify strengths and weaknesses and describe a personal development plan. 
  7. Demonstrate knowledge and skills required to work on cross-cultural and virtual teams.
Method of presentation: 

This course is run as a seminar with active discussion of readings and case studies. Case studies with broad application and also those pertinent to the local context wherever possible will be used regularly for getting a hands-on approach to the questions at hand. Personal accounts from social partners and policy makers as well as field studies to appropriate business, policy-making and service organizations will give students an opportunity to speak with practitioners.

Required work and form of assessment: 
  • Active participation in seminar based on assigned reading - 20%
  • Personal Development Journal, exercises and quizzes - 10%
  • Mid-term exam - 20%
  • Group Project/In-class presentation - 20%
  • Final Essay based on group project - 30%
  Personal Development Journal Self-reflection is essential to developing one’s understanding of leadership along with skills required for mastering complex situations. Entries are directed assignments that require students to reflect on class discussions and readings, and to focus on the host country as observed in daily life. Journal entries are sent to the instructor every week. Each entry should be 1-2 typewritten pages, double-spaced (250-500 words).  Group Project/In-class Presentation Students will identify a leadership case study in politics, business, the arts, or social services to examine and present to their class. Classmates complete a peer review.  Final Essay Each student will write a group essay based on the case study they have analyzed in the group project, drawing on theoretical models and cross-cultural issues that were presented during the course. Additional Research may be required. 10-12 pp, double-spaced.  Overall, the professor will assess the students’ abilities:
  • To understand the course and the readings: How students can describe and explain main ideas and concepts about leadership.
  • To reuse and apply the course in order to analyze different ways to lead through history, news, case studies and their personal experience.
  • To raise in generality so as to extract from specific situations some broader knowledge on the leadership process.




Part One: What Makes a Leader?

Class 1

Introduction to the course; expectations in the classroom

  • What do we know about leadership?
  • Tentative definition of leadership. Is there a single definition?
  • Expectations in the classroom
  • Presentations will be assigned for each session.


  • De Vries, Kets (1994) “The Leadership Mystique”, Academy of Management Executive, 8(3).


  • Bennis, Warren (2009) On becoming a leader. New York: Basic Books.
  • Burns, James M. (1978) Leadership, N.Y: Harper.
  • Rost, Joseph C. (1991) Leadership for the Twenty-First Century, Praeger Paperback.

Class 2

Leaders and Managers

  • What is the difference between leaders and managers?
  • The role of vision in leadership


  • Kotter, John (1990) “What Leaders Really Do”, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 68 No.3, pp.103-11, May-June.


  • Peters, Tom (1979) “Leadership: Sad Facts and Silver Linings”, Harvard Business Review, Nov-Dec; 57(6): 164-72.
  • Zaleznik, Abraham (1977) “Managers and Leaders: Are They Different?”, Harvard Business Review, 55:3, 67-78, May-June.
  • Kanter, Rosabeth M. (2004) “The Middle Manager as Innovator.” Harvard Business Review, July-August, 150-161

Class 3

Overview of leadership studies

  • Can we teach and learn leadership?
  • Brief history of leadership research and presentations of the main theories on leadership


  • Mendenhall, Mark E. (2008) “Leadership and the birth of global leadership” In Mendenhall, M. E. , Osland, J.S., Bird, A., Oddou, G.R., & Maznevski, M.L. (2008) Global leadership: Research, practice, and development. London: Routledge.


  • Antonakis, John (2006) “Leadership: What is it and how it is implicated in strategic change?” International Journal of Management Cases, 8(4), 4-20.
  • Goleman, Daniel (2000) Leadership that gets results. Harvard Business Review, March-April.
  • Jago, Arthur G. (1982) “Leadership: Perspectives in Theory and Research”, Management Science, Vol. 28 Issue 3 (March), p315-336.
  • Kets de Vries, M. and Engellau, E. (2004) Are Leaders Born or Are They Made: The Case of Alexander the Great, Karnac.
  • March, James and Weil, Thierry (2005) On Leadership: A Short Course, London: Wiley Blackwell, Chapter 1.
  • Northouse, Peter G. (2009) Leadership: Theory and Practice, Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications
  • Parks, Sharon Daloz. Leadership Can Be Taught, Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2005 (Ch. 9, 10).

Class 4

Personality, Traits and Charisma

  • Can everybody become a leader?
  • Why do some individuals emerge as leaders and how are they attributed charisma?
  • Are there individual traits that can be reliably linked to leadership?
  • Emotional Intelligence and the Focused leader


  • Kirkpatrick, Shelley A., Locke, Edwin A. (1991) “Leadership: Do Traits Matter?”, The Executive, Vol. 5, No. 2, May, pp. 48-60.
  • Goffee, Robert, Jones, Gareth, (2000) “Why Should Anyone Be Led by You?”, Harvard Business Review, Sep/Oct. 2000, Vol. 78 Issue 5, p.62-70.


  • Goleman, D. (2013). “The Focused Leader. How effective executives direct their own-and their organizations’ attention” Harvard Business Review, December, Vol. 91 Issue 12, pp. 50-60.
  • Lim, B-C, Ployhart, R. E. (2004). “Transformational Leadership: Relations to the Five-Factor Model and Team Performance in Typical and Maximum Contexts”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, pp. 610-621.
  • Northouse, Peter G. (2009) Leadership: Theory and Practice, Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications (chap. 2).
  • Shamir, Boas, House, Robert J., Arthur, Michael B. (1993) “The Motivational Effects of Charismatic Leadership: A Self-Concept Based Theory”, Organization Science, Vol. 4, No. 4 (Nov.), pp. 577-594.
  • Weber, Max (1947) “The Nature of Charismatic Authority and its Routinization”, in The Theory of Social and Economic Organizations, New York: The Free Press, pp. 358-392.
  • Willner, A. R., 1984, The Spellbinders: Charismatic Political Leadership, New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

Class 5

Style and attitudes

  • Various goals and ways to lead.
  • What is your leadership style? (Self-assessment)
  • How to improve your own leadership abilities.



  • Goleman, Daniel (2000) Leadership that gets results. Harvard Business Review, March-April.
  • Hodgson, P. & White, R. P (2001). Leadership: The ne(x)t generation. In
  • Hodgson, P. & White, R.P., Relax: It’s only uncertainty. London: Financial Times. Prentice Hall.


  • Blake, Robert R., McCanse, Anne A. (1991) Leadership Dilemmas—Grid Solutions, Houston: Gulf Publishing.
  • Goleman, D. (1998) “What Makes a Leader?,” Harvard Business Review, Nov/Dec, pp.93-102.
  • Hall Tony, Janman Karen (2009) The Leadership Illusion: The Importance of Context and Connections, New-York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Maxwell, JC (1998) The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership: Follow Them and People Will Follow You, Nashville (TN): Thomas Nelson Publishers.
  • Collins, Jim (2005), “Level 5 Leadership: The Triumph of Humility and Fierce Resolve”, Harvard Business Review, Jul/Aug, Vol. 83 Issue 7/8, p136-146.
  • Stogdill, R. M. (1948) "Personal factors associated with leadership: A survey of the literature." Journal of Psychology. 25: 35-71

Class 6

Relations between Leaders and Followers

  • Shift from the leader-centered view to the leaders-followers relationship.
  • Various types of followers and why they follow leaders.



  • Bass, B. M. (1990) “From Transactional to Transformational Leadership: Learning to Share the Vision”. Organizational Dynamics, 18(3), 19-31.
  • Kellerman, Barbara (2007) “What every leader needs to know about followers”, Harvard Business Review, Dec., pp. 84-91.


  • Burns, James M. (1978) Leadership. N.Y: Harper.
  • Rost, Joseph C. (1995) “Leaders and Followers are the People in this Relationship” in Wren, J. Thomas, The Leader’s Companion, New-York (NY): Free Press (Chapter 30).
  • Graen, George B., Uhl-Bien, Mary (1995) "Relationship-Based Approach to Leadership: Development of Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory of Leadership over 25 Years: Applying a Multi-Level Multi-Domain Perspective", Leadership Quarterly 6:2 (1995), pp. 219-247.

Part Two: Culture & Leadership

Class 7

How Culture affects Leadership?

  • Defining culture across disciplines; models specific to this culture.
  • Levels of cultural diversity within a national ‘culture’: gender, age, religion, ethnicity, etc.


  • Hofstede, Geert (1980) "Motivation, Leadership, and Organization: Do American Theories Apply Abroad?", Organizational Dynamics, Summer 1980; Vol. 9(1): 42-63.

Class 8


Cultural differences in leadership

  • What are the different views of leadership in different cultures and in different domains within cultures?
  • What are the different leadership styles and different codes of behavior in different cultures (and even within those cultures)?



  • Agrawal, A. and Rook, C. (2013) “Global Leaders in East and West – Do All Global Leaders Lead in the Same Way?” INSEAD Working Paper.


  • Chhokar, Jagdeep, Felix Brodbeck, and Robert House (Eds.). (2007) “Culture and Leadership in 25 Societies: Integration, Conclusions, and Future Directions,” in Culture and Leadership Across the World: The Globe Book of In-depth Studies of 25 Societies. New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 1023-1082.
  • Hofstede, Geert H. (2010) Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind: Intercultural Cooperation and Its Importance for Survival. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Javidan, M., House, R. J., & Dorfman, P. W. (2004) “A non-technical summary of GLOBE findings,” In R. J. House, P. J. Hanges, M. Javidan, P. W. Dorfman, & V.Gupta (Eds.), Culture, leadership, and organizations: The study of 62 societies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 29-48.
  • Northouse, Peter G. (2009) Leadership: Theory and Practice, Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications (chap. 14).
  • Schein, Edgar H. (2010) Organizational Culture and Leadership, San Francisco: Jossey Bass Wiley, 2010

Class 9

Leading Across Cultures

  • Managing conflicts of ethics and values.
  • Building trust across cultures, influencing



  • Lewis, Richard D. (2006), When Cultures collide: leading across cultures, (3rd ed) Nicolas Brealey: London (ch. 7)


  • Fauré, Guy Olivier (2000) “Negotiations to Set Up Joint Ventures in China”, International Negotiation, Vol. 5 Issue 1, p.157-189.
  • Lewis, Richard D. (2006), When Cultures collide: leading across cultures, (3rd ed) Nicolas Brealey: London (Ch.5).
  • Moran R., Harris P., Moran S. (2007) Managing Cultural differences, Global leadership strategies for the 21st century (7th ed), London, Elsevier. (Ch. 1 & 2).
  • Peterson, Brooks (2004) Cultural Intelligence: A Guide to Working with People from Other Cultures. Intercultural Press, Yarmouth, ME.
  • Trompenaars, Fons and Charles Hampden-Turner (2004) Managing People Across Cultures. Mankato: Capstone

Class 10

Gender and leadership

  • What gender issues might affect the leadership of both men and women?
  • Is there naturally a different way of leading based on gender?
  • Stereotypes and the way cultures shape inequalities of status between men and women.



  • Ibarra H, Obodaru O. (2009) “Women and the vision thing”, Harvard Business Review, 87:62-70.


  • Daewoo Park, (1996) "Gender role, decision style and leadership style", Women in Management Review, Vol. 11 Iss: 8, pp.13–17
  • Eagly , Alice H., Johnson, Blair T., (1990) "Gender and Leadership Style: A Meta-Analysis”. CHIP Documents. Paper 11.
  • Heilman, M. E, Wallen, A. S., Fuchs, D., & Tamkins, M. M. (2004) “Penalties forsuccess: Reactions to women who succeed at male gender typed tasks”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89: 416-427.
  • Klenke, K. (1996) Women and Leadership: A Contextual Perspective, New York, NY, Springer
  • Pounder James S., Coleman Marianne (2002) "Women – better leaders than men? In general and educational management it still “all depends”", Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 23 Iss: 3, pp.122-133.
  • Richardson, A. and Loubier, C. “Intersectionality and Leadership”, International Journal of Leadership Studies, Vol. 3 Iss. 2, 2008, p. 142-161.
  • Robnett, Belinda (1996) "African American Women in the Civil Rights Movement, 1954-1965: Gender, Leadership and Micromobilization", American Journal of Sociology, 101(6): 1661-93, May.
  • Rosener, Judy B. (1990) "Ways Women Lead", Harvard Business Review, 68 (6): 119-125, November-December 1990.
  • Sanberg, Sheryl (2013) Lean In: Women, Work and the Will to Lead, New York, Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Thompson, Michael D., (2000) “Gender, Leadership Orientation, and Effectiveness: Testing the Theoretical Models of Bolman & Deal and Quinn”, Sex Roles, Volume 42, Numbers 11-12, 969-992

Class 11

Social and Racial backgrounds in leadership

  • What are the socio-economic issues that might empower or disable a leader?
  • Can race and ethnicity provide specific skills for leadership?


  • Purdue, Derrick (2001) “Neighbourhood Governance: Leadership, Trust and Social Capital”, Urban Studies, November, 38(12): 2211-2224.



  • Bonjean, C., Olsen, D. (1964) “Community leadership: directions of research”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 9, pp. 278– 300.
  • Gardner, Howard (1995) Leading Minds: An Anatomy of Leadership. New York: Basic Books.
  • Marwell, Nicole P. (2007) Bargaining for Brooklyn: Community Organizations in the Entrepreneurial City, Chicago: University Of Chicago Press.
  • McIlwain, Charlton D. (2007) “Perceptions of Leadership and the Challenge of Obama’s Blackness.” Journal of Black Studies, 38: 64-74.
  • Venkatesh, Sudhir (2008) Gang leader for a day: A Rogue Sociologist Takes to the Streets, New York: Penguin Press.

Class 12

Midterm Exam

Part Three: The Practice of Leadership

Class 13

Guest Speakers


Class 14

Envisioning and Implementing Change

  • What is a leader’s role in change? A mix of vision, courage and context.
  • What qualities and skills are necessary to implement change successfully?
  • Social innovation and the social enterprise



  • Kotter, John P. (2007) “Leading Change: Why Transformation Efforts Fail”, Harvard Business Review, Jan., Vol. 85 Issue 1, p.96-103.


  • Conger, J. A., Riggio, R. E. (eds.) (2007) The practice of leadership: Developing the next generation of leaders, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Graetz, Fiona (2000) "Strategic change leadership", Management Decision, 38(8), pp.550-564.
  • Kanter, Rosabeth M. (2006), “Innovation: the classic traps.”, Harvard Business Review, Nov; 84(11):72-83, 154.
  • Kotter, John P. (1996) Leading Change, Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
  • Mumford, Michael. (2004) "Leading for innovation: Conclusions, issues, and directions", The Leadership Quarterly, Volume:15 Issue: 1.
  • Trompenaars A. and C. Hampden-Turner (2002) 21 Leaders for the 21st century: How innovative leaders manage in the digital age, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Class 15

Leadership in Business

  • How to lead change in business companies.
  • Generating and sustaining innovation.
  • Ethical issues in business.



  • Ghosn, Carlos, “Saving the Business without Losing the Company”, Harvard Business Review, January 2002, vol.80, N°1, pp.37-45.


  • Balazs, K. (2001) “Some Like it Haute: Leadership Lessons from France’s Great Chefs.”, Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 30, N°2.
  • Gini, Al. (2004) “Business, Ethics, and Leadership in a Post Enron Era”, Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, Summer; vol. 11, 1: pp. 9-15.
  • Muratbekova-Touron, Maral (2005) “Permanence and Change: Case Study of Changes in Organizational Culture at a Multinational Company”, Journal of Change Management, 5(2), 207-219, June.
  • Trompenaars, F. and Woolliams, P. (2003), Business Across Culture, Chichester, England, Capstone.
  • Trompenaars, F. and C. Hampden-Turner (1997), Riding the Waves of Culture Understanding cultural diversity in Business (2nd ed), Nicolas Brealey Publishing, London.

Class 16

The Leader’s role in Teaming\

  • Can we increase followers’ motivation and team effectiveness?
  • The central role of trust and obedience: how far can we follow?
  • Coping with rivalry and conflict.


  • Jessup, Harlan R. (1990) “New Roles in Team Leadership”, Training and Development Journal, Nov. v. 44(11): 79-83.


  • Augsburger, David (1992) Conflict Mediation Across Cultures: Pathways and Patterns. Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press.
  • Avruch, Kevin, Peter Black, and Joseph Scimecca (eds.) (1991) Conflict Resolution: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. New York: Greenwood Press.
  • Barge, J.K. (1994) Leadership: Communication skills for organizations and group, New York: St. Martin's Press.
  • Fauré, Guy Olivier (2003) How People Negotiate: The Resolution of Conflicts in Different Cultures, Dordrecht (Holland): Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Morgeson, F. P., Lindoerfer, D. & Loring, D. J. (2010). Developing team leadership capability. Em Velsor, E. V., McCauley, C. D. & Ruderman, M. N. (Eds.) The Center for Creative Leadership Handbook of Leadership Development (pp. 285-312) (3a Ed.). Jossey-Bass/A Wiley Imprint.
  • Northouse, Peter G., Leadership. Theory and practice (Ch. 7: Path-Goal theory).

Class 17

Political leadership: types of leaders and strategies

  •  What are the specific skills of political leaders?
  • Can we combine ethics and strategic behavior to get into power?



  • Peele Gilian, (2005) “Leadership in Politics: A Case for a Closer Relationship”. Leadership, Vol 1 (2): 187-204.


  • Blondel, Jean (1987) Political Leadership, London: Sage.
  • Breuillard Michèle, Guérard, Stéphane (2009) “Local Leadership in a National Context: A Franco-English Comparison of Institutional Frameworks and Political Cultures” in Herwig Reynaert, Kristof Steyvers, Pascal Delwit & Jean-Benoit Pilet (eds.) Local Political Leadership in Europe: Town Chief, City Boss or Loco President? Bruges: Vanden Broele Publishers.
  • Edinger, Lewis (1990) ‘Approaches to the Comparative Analysis of Political Leadership’, Review of Politics 52, pp. 509-523.
  • Elgie, Robert (1995) Political Leadership in Liberal Democracies, Basingstoke: Macmillan.
  • Kellerman, Barbara, (1984) ‘Leadership as a Political Act’, in Barbara Kellerman (ed.), Leadership: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, Upper Saddle River: Prentice Halls, pp. 63-89.
  • Kellerman, Barbara (1986) Political Leadership: A Source Book. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press
  • Keohane N. O. (2005) “On Leadership,” Perspective on Politics, vol. 3, # 4 (December), pp. 705-722.
  • Körösényi, András (2005) “Political Representation in Leader Democracy”, Government and Opposition, 40, pp. 358-378.
  • Mény, Ives (2002) “The Institutionalization of Leadership”, in Josep M. Colomer (ed.), Political Institutions in Europe, (2nd ed), London: Routledge, pp. 95-133.
  • Poguntke, Thomas and Webb, Paul (eds) (2005), The Presidentialization of Politics: A Comparative Study of Modern Democracies, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Class 18

Getting involved: Student leaders and the development of leadership

  • Student activism and its impact on society.
  • Models of leadership development and student leaders.


  • Komives, S. & Harris, J. (2005). “Student activism as leadership development”, Concepts & Connections, 13(1), 12-14.
  • Lord, R.G., Hall, R.J. (2005), “Identity, deep structure, and the development of leadership skill”, Leadership Quarterly, 16, pp.591–615.


  • Altbach, Philip G. and Robert Cohen (1990) “American Student Activism: The Post-Sixties Transformation”, The Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 61, No. 1 (Jan. - Feb.), pp. 32-49.
  • Astin, A. W. (1993). What matters in college and why: Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Chambers, T., & Phelps, C. (1993). Student activism as a form of leadership and student development. NASPA Journal, 31, 19-29.
  • Colby, Anne, Elizabeth Beaumont, Thomas Ehrlich, Josh Corngold (2007) Educating for Democracy: Preparing Undergraduates for Responsible Political Engagement. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Higher Education Research Institute (1996) A social change model of leadership development: Guidebook version III. College Park, MD: National Clearinghouse for Leadership Programs.
  • Renn, Kristen A. And Brent L. Bilodea (2004) “Leadership Identity Development Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Student Leaders”, NASPA Journal, Vol. 42, no.3, 342-367.

Class 19

Analyzing leadership through films

  • Black Harvest (1992), Documentary by Bob Connolly and Robin Anderson;
  • The King’s speech (2010) Film by Tom Hooper;
  • The Iron Lady (2011) Film by Phyllida Lloyd
  • The Lady (2011) Film by Luc Besson;
  • Mandela: Long walk to freedom (2013) Film by Justin Chadwick.


Class 20

Field Study


Class 21

Media and leadership

  • Leadership under crisis and the role of communication.
  • Modern tools for modern leadership? Social networking, new technologies and leadership
  • Journalists as leaders and opinion makers; public opinion polls and the media.



  • Schudson, Michael, (2002) “The news Media as political institutions“, Annual Review of Political Science, Vol. 5: 249-269.


  • Biddix, J. Patrick and Han Woo Park (2008) “Online networks of student protest: the case of the living wage campaign”, New Media Society, December,10(6): 871-891.
  • Black, Jay, Bob Steele, Ralph Barney (1998). Doing Ethics in Journalism: A Handbook in Case Studies. Pearson Allyn & Bacon, 3rd edition.
  • Blumler Jay G., Kavanagh Denis (1999) “ The Third Age of Political Communication: Influences and Features”, Political Communication, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp209-230.
  • Kissler, Garry D. "e-leadership", Organizational dynamics, Vol.30, N°2, 2001, pp.121-133.
  • Mc Luhan, M. The Gutenberg Galaxy, Toronto, University of Toronto Press.
  • Mughan, Anthony (2000), Media and the Presidentialization of Parliamentary Elections, London: Macmillan.
  • Read, Donald (1992) The Power of News: The History of Reuters (1849-1989). Oxford University Press.
  • Trompenaars A. and C. Hampden-Turner (2002), 21 Leaders for the 21st Century: How innovative leaders manage in the digital age, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Class 22

International leadership and global power

  • What is leadership at an international level?
  • What is soft power?



  • Ikenberry, G.John (1996) “The Future of International leadership”, Political Science Quaterly, vol.111, N°3, Autumn, pp.385-402.



  • Aggestam, L. (ed.) (2008) 'Special Issue - "The EU as an Ethical Power"', International Affairs, 84(1).
  • Allison, Graham, Zelikow, Philip. Essence of Decision: Explaining The Cuban Missile Crisis. New York: Longman, 1999.
  • Flemes, Daniel (ed.) (2010) Regional Leadership in the Global System: Ideas, Interests and Strategies of Regional Powers, Aldershot: Ashgate.
  • Laïdi, Z. (Ed.). (2008) EU Foreign Policy in a Globalized World. Normative Power and Social Preferences. London: Routledge.
  • Nye, Joseph, “Soft-power”, in Foreign Policy, No. 80, Twentieth Anniversary (Autumn, 1990), pp. 153-171.
  • Obama B., (2007) “Renewing American Leadership”, Foreign Affairs, July/August 2007.
  • Tallberg, Jonas (2006) Leadership and negotiation in the European Union: The Power of the Presidency, Cambridge; Cambridge University Press.

Class 23

Presentation of Group projects I

  • Group Project Presentations.
  • In-class peer reviews.

Class 24

Presentation of Group projects II

  • Group Project Presentations.
  • In-class peer reviews.
  • Final paper due


Required readings: 
Selected Major Comprehensive Studies:
  • Bass, Bernard M. (1990) Bass and Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership, 3rd ed. New York: Free Press.
  • Blondel, Jean, Political Leadership, London: Sage, 1987.
  • Bryman, Alan, Collinson, David. (eds.) (2001) The Sage Handbok of Leadership, London: Sage.
  • Kellerman, Barbara (1986) Political Leadership: A Source Book. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  • Northouse, Peter G. (2009) Leadership: Theory and Practice, Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications.