Social Entrepreneurship and Social Innovation in Europe

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Course Information
Program(s): 
Discipline(s): 
Sociology
International Business
Terms offered: 
Fall, Spring
Credits: 
3
Language of instruction: 
English
Prerequisites: 

A course in PO or BUS/COM or SOC

Description: 

Social entrepreneurship is one of the most high-impact and sustainable innovations for solving society’s most difficult challenges in Europe and across the globe.  Social Entrepreneurs have won Nobel Peace Prizes, radicalised health care systems, brought endless citizens out of hopeless situations of poverty, and led change to reduce corruption, crime and racism.  Social innovators that support the movement have found endless ways to create positive change in almost every sector imaginable.  Social innovation and social entrepreneurship in the EU is as diverse and rich as the Member States themselves.

This course will provide you with an entrepreneurial, business and social understanding of the phenomena of social innovation and social entrepreneurship.  Your ability to view and understand solutions for solving society’s challenges with an analytical and entrepreneurial approach will be developed.  Whether you plan to work in politics and policy, business, finance, education, social service, development, health, peace or any other field, social innovation and social entrepreneurship are relevant to your future.  During this semester we will seek to understand the many facets of social innovation, the movement of social entrepreneurship and its development and practice within Europe.  What will you learn is certain to inspire and may also spark the changemaker within.

Attendance policy: 

All IES Abroad courses require attendance and participation (see participation grade breakdown above). Attendance is mandatory per IES Abroad policy. Any unexcused absence will incur a penalty of 3% on your final grade. Any student who has more than three (3) unexcused absences will receive an “F” as the final grade in the course. Absences due to sickness, religious observances, and family emergencies may be excusable at the discretion of the Center Director.

In the case of an excused absence, it is the student’s responsibility to inform the Academic Dean of the absence with an Official Excused Absence Form, as well as any other relevant documentation (e.g. a doctor’s note), and to keep a record thereof. This form must be turned in as soon as possible before the class, in the case of a planned absence, or immediately after the class, in the case of an unplanned absence, in order for the absence to be considered excused. It is also the student’s responsibility to inform the professor of the missed class. Students can collect and submit the Official Excused Absence Form from the office of the Academic Dean.

TESTS MISSED DURING UNEXCUSED ABSENCES CANNOT BE MADE UP.  Assignments that are handed in after the due date will be penalized, unless the student’s absence on the due date has been excused.

The use of laptop computers during class is not permitted unless for presentation purposes in coordination with the instructor. Cell phones are to be switched off. Updated information on your course and readings can be found on the Moodle platform at https://eu.elearning.iesabroad.org/.

Learning outcomes: 
  1. Understand the evolution of social entrepreneurship and the economic, business and social relevance behind the innovation.
  2. Based on field study and course lectures, experience and analyse the social entrepreneurship movement in practice in Europe, its diverse application and how social entrepreneurs use innovation to solve social problems.
  3. Appreciate and apply the pre-conditions of social innovation and social entrepreneurship, such as leadership, critical and creative thinking, ethical conduct, entrepreneurship, empathy and civic engagement.
  4. Develop the ability and aptitude to think critically about society’s challenges and have the confidence to propose innovative solutions.
  5. Discern the economic and social impact as well as policy implications of social entrepreneurship.
  6. Create a business/action plan for social innovation within a European context.
  7. Articulate and launch a personalised approach for leadership and application of the principles of social entrepreneurship and innovation for creating change locally and globally.
Method of presentation: 
  • Lectures
  • Video Clips
  • Student presentations, exchange and discussion
  • Student simulations, scenarios and entrepreneurial-based problem-solving
  • Study of current events demonstrating societies’ challenges (environment, climate, social,    conflict, poverty) and application to the topic
  • Workshop activities within class
  • Field study to learn from local social innovators in the Freiburg region as well as applying EU Member States Study Trip observations to course content

The course will be supplemented with local and current articles as well as current research.  The work of one social entrepreneur in Europe will be presented then discussed by students in each class.

Required work and form of assessment: 
  1. Participation - 20%
  2. Personal Statement on Social Entrepreneurship and Social Innovation - 5%
  3. Final Term Project Proposal - 10%
  4. Mid-term Exam - 15%
  5. Team Project - 15%
  6. Team Presentation - 10%
  7. Final Term Project - 25%

1.  Participation (20%) that will be assessed as follows:

  • Active demonstration of knowledge of class readings - 5%
  • Involvement in class activities - 10%
    • Specific contributions assigned for class 
    • Impromptu class activities 
  • Professional commitment and approach to learning - 5%
    • towards classmates, professor, field study hosts, learning etc. 

2.  Personal Statement on Social Entrepreneurship and Social Innovation (5%) (5%) to be handed in on class session 4. (Approx. 250 words or 1 page) You will hand in your impressions of what social innovation and social entrepreneurship mean to you. You must include your first ideas for your Social Entrepreneurship-based business or project plan. Be sure to state why you have chosen this idea and what social problem it will address. 

3.  Course Term Project Proposal (10%):  Social Entrepreneurship Business Plan Outline for your proposal for using a social-innovation and entrepreneurial-based approach for solving a European problem that concerns you to be handed in in class session 7.  The readings and guides from Session 13 will help you to prepare and a guideline will be provided by the instructor. (Maximum 2 pages that follow the guidelines)

4.  Mid-term exam (15%): A mid-way evaluation (class session 11) to ensure that the basic concepts behind social entrepreneurship and innovation have been clearly understood.

5.  Team Project (15%): EU Social Entrepreneurship Case Study.  You will choose a European Social Entrepreneur and prepare a case study that will include:

  • an overview of the person or group implementing the innovation
  • what problem they set out to solve
  • what challenges you believe that they now face
  • what personal traits and organizational strategies are key to success or hinder their progress for the future.
  • what lessons could be learned for replication of the innovation

The case study will be handed in on Session number 14.
(Maximum 4 pages, in a group of at least 3 students)

6. Team Presentation (10%): EU Social Entrepreneurship Case Study with post-IES Member State trip reflection.  You will present your case study to class and add reflections of at least three observations or experiences from your Member State Trip.  These could include problems that you saw on your trip that could benefit from the SE/SI approach, or inspirational SE/SI experienced that you observed that should be shared.  Your presentation will be followed by exchange within the group.

7.  Final Term Project - Social Entrepreneurship Business Plan and Inspiration for your journey for Change and Innovation (25%)  to be handed in before the start of the last class session. 

You have developed your business or action plan based on your Term Project Business Plan proposal. All key elements of a business plan for social change as outlined in class, in your research  (primary and secondary) will be included in a summarized form of maximum of 10 pages including graphics and images.  (Maximum 10 pages, or 2500 words)   
content: 

Session

Content

Readings & Assignments

Introduction

 

I.The Evolution of a Movement for Change and Innovation

Session 1

 

 

Welcome to a New Way of Seeing the World.

Course Introduction

This session will focus on group introductions as well as a review of the course content, evaluation, student deliverables and learning outcomes. Through a participatory workshop, we will attempt to discern where we stand in the social innovation and social entrepreneurship space to

support the preparation of a one page “Personal Statement on Social Entrepreneurship and Social

Innovation” due in class session 3.

Expectations will be clearly communicated so that you understand the importance of your “learning investment” versus your “learning return on investment” and we will set the course of our

three month journey that may just make you think differently about almost everything you do.

 

1. Welcome and Introductions

2. Review of course syllabus

3. Social Entrepreneurship workshop – how do you define the movement?

4. Class exchange on goals and expectations

Required Reading:

Bornstein, D. 2004. How to Change the World: Social Entrepreneurs and the Power of New Ideas. New York. Oxford University Press. pp 1-60. Chapters 1-5.

 

Recommended Readings:

Martin, R. and S. Osberg. “Social Entrepreneurship: The Case for Definition” in Stanford Social Innovation Review. Spring 2007 . pp 28-39.

Session 2

 

Understanding Social Entrepreneurship and Social Innovation.

Social Entrepreneurship and the innovation that serves as its beacon, will be of the most important forms of global leadership in the decades to come.

This session will help you understand the basic (and debated) concepts of social innovation and

social entrepreneurship that will guide you throughout the term.

Required Readings: (in this order for content logic)

Phills Jr. J., K. Deiglmeier, and D. Miller. “Rediscovering Social Innovation” in Stanford Social Innovation Review Fall 2008. Pp34-43.

Brooks. A. Social Entrepreneurship: A Modern Approach to Social Value Creation. Upper Saddle

River, N.J. Prentice Hall. 2009. Pp 1-22. (Chapter 1-An Introduction to Social Entpreneurship).

Recommended Readings:

Praszkier, R. and A. Nowak. Social Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice. New York. Cambridge

University Press. 2012. Pp 1- 25.

Session 3

 

 

Solving the World’s Problems: Whose Job is it?

Here we will view poverty, violence, racism, discrimination, environmental degradation, unemployment, illness, education and other societal challenges. Our debate may focus on strategies

that focus on charity vs. capitalism, social work vs entrepreneurship, indigenous knowledge vs

new technologies? Who should do what?

 

Required Readings:

Schwartz ,B. Rippling: How Social Entrepreneurs Spread Innovation throughout the World. San

Francisco, Jossey-Bass. 2012. Part 3. Chapter 11.

Mitra C. and A. Borza. “The Role Of Corporate Social Responsibility in Social Entrepreneurship” in

Management & Marketing Challenges for Knowledge Society. 2010. Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 63-76

Recommended Reading:

Changemakers – Trends. http://pulse.changemakers.com/categories/all/trends/

 

Session 4

 

 

From Say to Schumpeter to Drucker: What is Entrepreneurship?

What is entrepreneurship and who are entrepreneurs? We will examine entrepreneurial thought

and how it has evolved to date. Together we will discuss what makes entrepreneurship different

when one places the word “social” in front of it. We will analyse 1-2 simple some business and

social problems and determine how an entrepreneur would seek to solve them.

 

Required Readings

Mirjam van praag, C. “Some Classic Views on Entrepreneurship” in De Economist 147, No. 3,

1999.

Samer Abu-Saifan . “Social Entrepreneurship: Definition and Boundaries” in Technology Innovation Management Review. Feb. 2012. Pp24-27

Review: Bornstein: from Session 1 required reading

Recommended Readings:

Boddice, R. “Forgotten antecedents: entrepreneurship, ideology and history”, in An Introduction

Entrepreneurship Voices, Preconditions, Contexts. (ed.) R. Ziegler. Cheltenham, UK. Edward Elgar. 2009

Swedberg, R. “Schmupteter’s full model of entrepreneurship: economic, non-economic and social

entrepreneurship” in An Introduction Entrepreneurship Voices, Preconditions, Contexts. (ed.) R.

Ziegler. Cheltenham, UK. Edward Elgar. 2009

 

Session 5

 

 

Empathy: The Precursor to Social Innovation and All that it Brings.

Empathy is the ability to understand how others feel. It is at the core of our existence as human

beings and compels us to act compassionately while reasoning alone often leads us to act in our

own interest.

The absence of empathy is one of the causes of bad business practices and politics, corruption,

aggression and violence, apathy towards the environment, conflict, neglect and racism to name a

few. Have we lost our empathy as we focus our goals on personal and professional success

alone? We will discuss how CEOs, lawyers, politicians, scientists, teachers, social workers, parents and everyone else need to treat empathy as a skill and not just an emotion, why it guides

social entrepreneurs and why it is a precursor to social innovation.

Required Readings:

Schwartz ,B. Rippling: How Social Entrepreneurs Spread Innovation throughout the World. San

Francisco. Jossey-Bass. 2012. Part 5 - Cultivating Empathy (Introduction)+Chapter 16

Required Video:

Summary of Jeremy Rifkin’s Empathetic Civilisation

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l7AWnfFRc7g

Recommended Reading:

Illouz, E. “The culture of management: Self-Interest, empathy and emotional control” in An Introduction Entrepreneurship Voices, Preconditions, Contexts. (ed.) R. Ziegler. Cheltenham, UK.

Edward Elgar. 2009

 

Participation Assignment:

Workshop: rethink the Roots for Empathy Programme for Children model. You will come up with

an active empathy strategy for one or more of the following:

1. Profit-oriented CEOs

2. Re-election oriented politicians

3. Goal-oriented NGO Managers

4. Social Housing Project residents with high pollution/low recycling participation (the easiest of

the three)

(PREPARATION: required readings for this session)

 

Session 6

 

Leadership for Social Innovation and Social Change.

Leaders from all walks of life and of all styles are crucial for the social change needed in today’s

world.

We will examine the role of leadership in creating entrepreneurial and innovative approaches to

society’s challenges for today and the future. What role does leadership play in the SE/SI movement. How does leadership act as a catalytic function of system change needed where the status

quo is no longer “working”.

During this class session we will also discuss your personal leadership role in life and as a

changemaker. What are the tools, skills and experiences are best suited to your style and goals,

and who you are and how might you support and lead social innovation?

Required Readings:

Praszkier, R. and A. Nowak. Social Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice. New York. Cambridge

University Press. 2012. Chapter 11. A New Kind of Leadership, pp. 140-154

Alvord, S. L. Brown, and C. Letts. “Social entrepreneurship leadership that facilitates societal

transformation— an exploratory study”. Harvard Kennedy School Centre for Public Leadership

Working Paper. 2003. . (FOCUS ON LEADERSHIP TOPIC PP. 145-48)

Recommended Readings:

Brown. T and J. Wyatt. “Design Thinking for Social Innovation” in Stanford Social Innovation Review. Winter 2010.

II.                  Diverse, Unique and Complex: Social Entrepreneurship in Europe   

Session 7

 

 

Workshop: Getting you ready for your term project. The problem, the idea and the

plan to get to the solution.

 

Have you ever gone through the process of putting bringing your idea of solving a societal problem to the implementation and solution stage? Using your social entrepreneurship and innovation

business plan proposal, we will review what is expected of you for your final term proposal (due

in Session 8) and your final term business / project plan (due in last class). From this point on - you will develop your idea based on your research and on content in future class lectures.

Required Readings:

Social Ventures Australia. A business planning guide for social enterprises

Session 8

 

Understanding SE in the European Context: How is the space in Europe unique?

Social Entrepreneurship was a term first coined in North America in the 1970s and 80s. How

then, is social entrepreneurship seen and understood in Europe? Is it possible to define social entrepreneurship in the European context given the vast differences in history, culture and language

in the European continent?

We will attempt to understand the differences and look at social entrepreneurship and social innovation through the European lens.

Required Readings:

Defourny, J. And M. Nyssens. “Conceptions Of Social Enterprise And Social Entrepreneurship in

Europe and the United States: Convergences and Divergences” in Journal of Social Entrepreneurship. Vol. 1, No. 1, 32–53. March 2010.

Hulgård, L. “Discourses of social entrepreneurship: Variations of the same theme?” EMES European Research Network Paper. 2010.

Recommended Readings:

BEPA (Bureau of European Policy Advisors). Empowering people, driving change. Social Innovation in the European Union. European Commission. 2011

OECD. 2010. “Social Entrepreneurship and Social Innovation”. Chapter 5. SMEs, Entrepreneurship and Innovation. OECD.

Session 9

 

Social Entrepreneurship in Germany

Is Germany the land of the Sozialunternehmer (German translation of “Social Entrepreneur”) or is

there a unique German social innovation within the land of the “Wohlfahrtverbänder” (public welfare organisations)? We will look at the unique German social innovation and entrepreneurship

space that exists within a country with a strong history of welfare state and domination of public

welfare organisations. Where are the innovative ideas, where is the impulse for innovation for

social change what challenges does the movement face within Germany?

Required Readings:

Schwartz ,B. Rippling: How Social Entrepreneurs Spread Innovation throughout the World. San

Francisco. Jossey-Bass. 2012. Chapter 1 “Power to the People” – Germany” pp 22-30.

Leppert, T. “Social Entrepreneurs in Deutschland – Ansätze und Besonderheiten

einer spezifischen Definition”. University of Hamburg Paper. 2008. (English summary will be provided)

 

Selected case studies from German social entrepreneurs and their work based on publications

available in English from Ashoka and the Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship will be

provided for this class session.

Session 10

 

 

Social Entrepreneurship in European “Welfare States” and in New EU Member

States: different challenges and different innovations?

In this session we will begin by looking into the innovation, trends, challenges for social entrepreneurs and social innovators in countries such as Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK. The discussions will prepare students for social innovation-based observation for the EU Member States trip.

We will also focus in this class will be new European Member States in countries such as Poland,

Hungary, Romania and others. Is social innovation and entrepreneurship in these European

countries much more in line with movement in developing country-contexts? If so, how? How has

the lack of a welfare state impacted on social innovation in these countries?

Required Readings:

Defourny, J. and M. Nyssens. “Social Enterprise In Europe: Recent Trends And Developments”, in

Social Enterprise Journal. Vol. 4 Iss: 3, 2008. pp.202 – 228

Defourny, J. ”Social Enterprise in an Enlarged Europe: Concept And Realities” EMES European Research Network. 2004.

Recommended Readings:

Paola Grenier. “Social entrepreneurship in the UK: from rhetoric to reality” in An Introduction Entrepreneurship Voices, Preconditions, Contexts. (ed.) R. Ziegler. Cheltenham, UK. Edward Elgar.

2009

Session 11

 

 

Mid Term Exam – (15%)

 

III.The Road to Becoming a Changemaker: Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation in

Practice

 

Session 12

 

 

The Practice of Social Innovation and Social Entrepreneurship

From goal-setting to implementation, from ideas to real change: how do the changemakers put it

all into practice? There are many answers and approaches to this question.

Social entrepreneurs usually begin by seeing dead-ends and impossible solutions as incredible

opportunities for change.

 

Required Readings:

Brooks. A. Social Entrepreneurship: A Modern Approach to Social Value Creation. Upper Saddle

River, N.J. Prentice Hall. 2009. pp 23-50. Ideas and Opportunities and Developing the Social Entreprise Concept

Social Ventures Australia. A Business Planning Guide for Social Enterprises. Making Money”- pg 9-15 and “Making it Work”-pg 19-24.

Recommended Readings:

Dees, G. “Social Ventures as Learning Laboratories” in Innovations : Social Innovation in a Post Crisis World. 2009

 

Mulgan, G. Social Innovation. What it is, Why it Matters and How it can be Accelerated. University of Oxford-Said Business School. 2007. Pp 4-20.

 

Session 13

 

 

The Concept of Social Capital and Value and the Networks that Help to Build Them.

 

What do we mean by “social capital”? The key difference between social capital and other forms

of capital is that social capital is embedded in relationships between individuals, seen within in the

resources acquired through relationships and networks and how these resources influence an innovator to act. We will look at this non-traditional definition of capital in the SE/SI context and

examine and discuss the importance of social capital within the social entrepreneurship sphere

and beyond.

Required Readings:

Praszkier, R. and A. Nowak. Social Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice. New York. Cambridge

University Press. 2012. Pp 80-106. Social Capital and Social Networks: the Bedrock of Social

Capital.

Auerswald, P. “Creating Social Value” in Stanford Social Innovation Review. Spring 2009

Session 14

 

 

Putting it all together – let’s review your business plan for Social Change.

As we’ve seen, social entrepreneurs need to put their ideas into a business or action plan, just

like traditional entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs and innovators however, do not always have the

most experience and even aptitude for the “business” and management side of making their ideas succeed and grow. In this session, we will visit look at the importance of business plans and

what is unique (and not) about business planning for social innovation and social enterprise.

We will also engage in several rounds of speed pitching, to help you continue to develop your

term business / project plans.

Required Readings:

Brooks. A. 2008. Social Entrepreneurship: A Modern Approach to Social Value Creation. Prentice

Hall. NJ. Social Entreprise Business Plans and Measuring Social Value. Pp 51-84.

Forth Sector. A Business Planning Guide to Developing a Social Enterprise. 2009. (UK-based).

Recommended Reading:

Root Cause. Business Planning for A Social-Entrepreneurial Approach to Solving Social Problems

Enduring Social Impact. 2008. (US-based)

Session 15

 

 

Understanding the Social Investment Space.

Finding the right financing remains one of the greatest challenges to planning, launching and

scaling a social enterprise. In this session we will look at the dynamics from the social entrepreneur perspective and the investor or “social investor” perspective.

Required Readings:

Brooks. A. Social Entrepreneurship: A Modern Approach to Social Value Creation. Upper Saddle

River, N.J. Prentice Hall. 2009. pp 123-151. Entrepreneurial Fundraising and Marketing –

Launch, Growth and Goal Attainment.

 

Credit Swiss and the Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship. Investing for Impact. How

Social Entrepreneurship is Redefining the Meaning of Return. 2012.

 

Recommended Reading:

Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship and Munich Technical University. Social Investment Manual: An Introduction for Social Entrepreneurs. 2011.

Clark, C., J. Emerson, B. Thornley. Impact Investor People & Practices Delivering Exceptional Financial & Social Returns. Pacific Community Ventures, Inc. (PCV), Impact Assets, and Duke University’s Fuqua School of Business. 2012

Session 16

 

Student Case Study Presentations and Student Exchange (10%)

Team EU Social Entrepreneurship case study presentations with post-IES Member State trip reflections will be presented during this session. Students will present case studies to class and add

reflections of at least three observations or experiences from their Member State Trip. These

could include problems observed that could benefit from the SE/SI approach, or inspirational

SE/SI experience that should be shared. The presentations will be followed by a group exchange.

 

 

Session 17

 

 

To Scale or not to Scale. What to do if Your Business Plan Works?

The point in time where a first goal or success has been obtained is as challenging as it is rewarding. What should be done next? Like knowledge, innovative social solutions for change should be

shared and where appropriate, replicated. Scaling ideas and practices and the factors that must

be considered will be examined during this session.

Required Readings:

Elkington, J. P. Hartigan and A. Litovsky, “From Enterprise to Ecosystem: Rebooting the Scale

Debate”, in Bloom, P and E.Skloot (eds). Scaling Social Impact., New York. Palgrave MacMillan.

2010.

Dees,G., B. Anderson, J. Wei-skillern. “Scaling Social Impact: Strategies for spreading social innovations” in Stanford Social Innovation Review. Spring 2004

 

Session 18

What Kind of Changemaker Will You Be?

This session we will review students’ term projects, and reflect upon how the “Personal Statements on Social Entrepreneurship and Social Innovation” have evolved (or not) during the term.

Together we will establish a strategy for the application of what we have learned to the IES Model

Can you play the role of social innovation “mentors” to your student colleagues during the Model

EU.

The role of mentorship (mentoring and being mentored) - crucial to spreading the SI/SE movement - will be discussed as well as what knowledge and experiences from the term may (or may

not) accompany students as they continue their journey to fulfilling personal and professional

goals.

Required Readings:

IES Model EU Agenda

Light, P. Social Entrepreneurship Revisited. Stanford Social Innovation Review

Summer 2009

Schwartz ,B. Rippling: How Social Entrepreneurs Spread Innovation throughout the World. San

Francisco. Jossey-Bass. 2012. Chapter 19.

Hovis, K. “Students Embrace Social Entrepreneurship”, in E-Ship Magazine. Cornell University. Fall

2011.

 

Required readings: 

Alvord, S.  L. Brown, and C. Letts. “Social entrepreneurship leadership that facilitates societal transformation— an exploratory study”.  Harvard Kennedy School Centre for Public Leadership Working Paper.  2003

Arpinte, D et al. “The Social Economy in the European Union.”  Calitatea Vieţii, XXI, nr. 1–2, 2010, p. 137–160

Auerswald, P. “Creating Social Value” in Stanford Social Innovation Review. Spring 2009

Bornstein, D. 2004.  How to Change the World:  Social Entrepreneurs and the Power of New Ideas.  New York. Oxford University Press. pp 1-60. Chapters 1-5.

Brown. T amd J. Wyatt.  “Design Thinking for Social Innovation” om Stanford Social Innovation Review. Winter 2010.

Brooks. A. Social Entrepreneurship: A Modern Approach to Social Value Creation. Upper Saddle River, N.J.  Prentice Hall. 2009.  

BEPA (Bureau of European Policy Advisors).  Empowering people, driving change.  Social Innovation in the European Union.  European Commission. 2011.

Clark, C., J. Emerson, B. Thornley.  Impact Investor People & Practices Delivering Exceptional Financial & Social Returns. Pacific Community Ventures, Inc. (PCV), Impact Assets, and Duke University’s Fuqua School of Business. 2012. 

Credit Swiss and the Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship.  Investing ror Impact.  How Social Entrepreneurship is Redefining the Meaning of Return. 2012. 

Dees, G. “Social Ventures as Learning Laboratories” in Innovations : Social Innovation in a Post-Crisis World. 2009

Dees,G. B. Anderson, J. Wei-skillern.  “Scaling Social Impact: Strategies for spreading social innovations” in Stanford Social Innovation Review. Spring 2004

Defourny, J. ”Social Enterprise in an Enlarged Europe: Concept And Realities” EMES European Research Network. 2004.

Defourny, J. And M. Nyssens. “Conceptions Of Social Enterprise And Social Entrepreneurship in Europe and the United States: Convergences and Divergences” in Journal of Social Entrepreneurship. Vol. 1, No. 1, 32–53. March 2010.

Defourny, J. and M. Nyssens.  “Social Enterprise In Europe: Recent Trends And Developments”, in Social Enterprise Journal. Vol. 4 Iss: 3, 2008. pp.202 – 228

Elkington, J. P. Hartigan and A. Litovsky, “From Enterprise to Ecosystem: Rebooting the Scale Debate”, in Bloom, P and E.Skloot (eds). Scaling Social Impact., New York. Palgrave MacMillan. 2010.

Forth Sector. A Business Planning Guide to Developing a Social Enterprise.  2009.   (UK-based).

Hagedoorn, J.  “Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Schumpeter Revisited” in  Industrial and Coporate Change.  Vol. 5. Num. 3. 1996.

Hovis, K. “Students Embrace Social Entrepreneurship”, in E-Ship Magazine.  Cornell University. Fall 2011.

Hulgård, L. “Discourses of social entrepreneurship: Variations of the same theme?” EMES European Research Network Paper. 2010. 

Light, P.  Social Entrepreneurship Revisited. Stanford Social Innovation Review Summer 2009

Leppert, T. “Social Entrepreneurs in Deutschland – Ansätze und Besonderheiten einer spezifischen Definition”.  University of Hamburg Paper. 2008

Light, P.  Social Entrepreneurship Revisited. Stanford Social Innovation Review Summer 2009

Martin, R. and S. Osberg. “Social Entrepreneurship: The Case for Definition” in Stanford Social Innovation Review.  Spring 2007 . pp 28-39.

Mirjam van praag, C. “Some Classic Views on Entrepreneurship” in  De Economist 147, No. 3, 1999.

Mitra C. and A. Borza. “The Role Of Corporate Social Responsibility in Social Entrepreneurship” in Management & Marketing  Challenges for Knowledge Society. 2010. Vol. 5, No. 2.

Mulgan, G.  Social Innovation.  What it is, Why it Matters and How it can be Accelerated. University of Oxford-Said Business School. 2007.  Pp 4-20.

Phills Jr. J., K. Deiglmeier, and D. Miller. “Rediscovering Social Innovation” in Stanford Social Innovation Review Fall 2008. Pp34-43.

Praszkier, R. and A. Nowak. Social Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice. New York. Cambridge University Press. 2012.  Pp 1- 25.

Root Cause.  Business Planning for A Social-Entrepreneurial Approach to Solving Social Problems Enduring Social Impact. 2008. (US-based)

Samer Abu-Saifan .  “Social Entrepreneurship: Definition and Boundaries” in Technology Innovation Management Review. Feb. 2012. Pp24-27

Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship and Munich Technical University. Social Investment Manual: An Introduction for Social Entrepreneurs.  2011. 

Schwartz ,B.  Rippling: How Social Entrepreneurs Spread Innovation throughout the World. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.  2012

Ziegler (ed). An Introduction Entrepreneurship Voices, Preconditions, Contexts.  Cheltenham, UK. Edward Elgar. 2009