Leading Across Cultures: Principles and Practice

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Course Information
Program(s): 
Discipline(s): 
International Relations
International Business
Terms offered: 
Fall, Spring
Credits: 
3
Language of instruction: 
English
Prerequisites: 

None

Additional student cost: 

Additional costs will be incurred for the use of online assessment tools (approximately $12), and one or two additional workshops (€30-€50) such as a horse-workshop or a rope climbing course.

Description: 

Global organizations, whether in business, non-profit, or government sectors, all require professionals who possess global leadership skills.  But what exactly are global leadership skills and how can they be developed?

The rising field of global leadership studies identifies the cultural context as one of the important dimensions in understanding how leaders negotiate conflict, meet ethical challenges, manage team-building, and bring about change in a global environment.  This course evaluates current theoretical models of leadership and leadership characteristics in the context of local culture and also identifies commonalities of leadership that are recognized across cultures.  The theory and practice of leadership in business, non-profit, and political organizations will be analyzed with a focus on Europe. With the goal of developing leadership skills, there is a particular emphasis on experiential learning throughout this course.  In addition to interactive classroom activities, students will be required to play a leadership role in the local community or take on an internship position.  Students will also have the opportunity to practice their leadership skills in a communication workshop involving horses or in an outdoor team-building workshop, for example.  Throughout the course students will be required to maintain self-reflection journals to map their experiences, insights, and progress.

Attendance policy: 

All IES Abroad courses require attendance and participation.

Learning outcomes: 
By the end of this course, students will be able to:
  1. Analyze the complexities of leading and managing across cultures in terms of multidisciplinary and theoretical frameworks. 
  2. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the moral and ethical responsibilities of leaders in a global environment. 
  3. Evaluate the social dynamics of leadership and importance of building relationships in multiple cultural contexts. 
  4. Observe and identify leadership and communication styles that are culture-specific and styles that are common across cultures. 
  5. Describe techniques to meet the challenges of leading, managing, and negotiating across cultures.
  6. Analyze one’s personal leadership style in terms of culturally-determined values, beliefs, and practices; identify strengths and weaknesses and describe a personal development plan. 
  7. Demonstrate knowledge, traits and skills required to work in a cross-cultural business, political, or non-profit organization. 
  8. Understand the impact of virtual workspaces on global team-settings.
Method of presentation: 
In addition to lectures, discussions, film clips, case studies, interactive and experiential activities, this course will be supplemented with local and current news articles and research. 
Required work and form of assessment: 
  • Participation in class, additional workshops, and co-curricular elements - 30%
  • Reflective Journals - 20%
  • Midterm - 10%
  • Project: Preparation of leadership roles for Model EU simulation - 10%
  • Final Academic paper - 30%
  Reflective Journals:
Self-reflection is essential to developing one’s understanding of leadership along with  the skills and traits required for mastering complex situations. Entries are directed assignments that  require students to reflect on their experience in class, local community leadership roles, field study  trips, and readings. Journal entries are to be completed by the due date each week and send via email.  Students use a given template for reflection.   Final academic paper:
Towards the end of the semester, students will write an academic paper by  analyzing a case, in which they may use their study abroad experience, their journal entries, their gained  theoretical knowledge and their readings.    Participation:  Participation in additional workshops and co-curricular elements is compulsory. This will include at least 2  additional outdoor workshops and a leadership role in the local community (such as the Rent-an-America  Program).    Project: In preparation for their leadership role plays in the Model EU simulation at the end of semester,  students will research and present the national leadership styles and cultural context of the country they  will be representing.

 

content: 

Session

Content

Readings

PART I: IMPROVE YOUR MANAGEMENT EXCELLENCE

Session 1

 

College, Study Abroad, and personal development

For dynamic societies, students are indispensable as agents of change. Drawing on examples of student activism from around the globe and at home colleges, we examine the role of students in leading the way for positive change. Communication is the key for leadership and in change management; We will discuss the dimensions of communication, the impact and meaning of trust, and reflect how to learn from mistakes. Students will discuss opportunities for their own personal development during their semester abroad and at their home universities. Students start to create a personal development plan (to reflect in S:7) and reflective journal for the duration of the course.

Required Reading:

  • Komives, Susan, and Lucas, Nance. “Developing a Leadership Identity,” in Exploring Leadership: For College Students who want to make a Difference. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2007. Ch. 13.

 

Recommended Reading:

  • Boren, Mark Edelman. Student Resistance: A History of the Unruly Subject. New York: Routledge, 2001.Pp. 1-13.
  • Kouzes, James and Posner, Barry. “Enlist others: Attracting people to common purposes,” in The Jossey-Bass Reader on Nonprofit and Public Leadership. Ed. James Perry. CA: Jossey-Bass/Wiley.
  • Quaye Stephen. “Hope and d learning: The outcomes of contemporary student activism,” in About Campus, Vol. 12, No. 2, (2007), pp.2-9.

Session 2

 

Understanding the impact of culture

This session introduces the key concepts of intercultural communication, as well as its relevance for the field of global leadership and intercultural management. We will explore definitions of culture, and the impact of stereotypes and cultural values. For that, we need to define the meaning of values and core beliefs, rituals and norms. Students will start reflecting on their own cultural identity.

Required Reading:

  • Hofstede, Geert, and Gert Jan Hofstede. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind.New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005. Pp. 1-36.

 

Recommended Reading:

  • Trompenaars, Fons and Hampden-Turner. Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Cultural Diversity in Business. London: Nicholas Brealey, 1997. Pp. 1-28.
  • Offermann, Lynn and Phan Ly. Culturally Intelligent Leadership for a Diverse World. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc, 2002. Pp. 187-214.

Session 3

 

Communicating and managing across cultures

Effective communication involves being aware of how you are being perceived by others. It also means understanding how cultural conditioning affects your ability to accurately interpret, understand, and communicate with people from other cultures. This session explores the influence of culture on verbal and nonverbal communication, as well as how negotiating and conflicts styles differ across Europe and the globe. Based on that, we will discuss the meaning of contingency theory for intercultural communication and introduce the Harvard Negotiation Concept as commitment oriented solution

method.

Required Reading:

  • Adler, Nancy, and Allison Gundersen. International Dimensions of Organizational Behaviour. OH: SouthWestern, 2008. Chapter 3, Pp. 69-95.

 

Recommended Reading:

  • Hall, Edward, Mildred Reed Hall. “Key Concepts: Underlying Structures of Culture,” in Readings in Intercultural Communication: Experiences and Contexts. Eds. Judith. N. Martin, Thomas. K. Nakayama, and Lisa A. Flores. MA: McGraw-Hill, 2002. Pp. 165-171.
  • Ting-Toomey, Stella. “Intercultural Conflict Competence,” in Readings in Intercultural Communication: Experiences and Contexts. Eds. Judith N. Martin, Thomas. K. Nakayama, and Lisa. A. Flores. MA: McGraw-Hill, 2002. Pp. 323-335

Session 4

 

Cultural Differences at Work: Focus on Europe

 

This session sets the context for working in an intercultural environment and explores methods to analyze different impacts on culture. We will describe how cultures vary in terms of their value orientations, attitudes, and behaviors; and how this profoundly influences working relationships and management styles. Students will explore how their own cultural orientations differ to those in Europe and across the globe. In addition, we will discuss the virtual impact of work around the globe and the virtual dimensions that needs to be considered.

Required Reading:

  • Adler, Nancy, and Allison Gundersen. International Dimensions of Organizational Behaviour. OH: SouthWestern, 2008. Chapters 1 & 2, Pp. 18-65. International Institute for Management Development Cultural perspectives questionnaire (2011).

 

Recommended Reading:

  • Gupta, Sangeeta. “Beyond Borders: Leading in Today’s Multicultural World” in Contemporary Leadership and Intercultural Competence: Exploring the Cross-Cultural Dynamics Within Organizations. Ed. Michael A. Moodian. California: Sage, 2009. Pp. 145-158. 
  • Trompenaars, Fons and Wooliams, Peter. Business Across Cultures. UK, West Sussex: Capstone, 2003. Ch. 1-3.

 

 

Session 5

 

Power, Race, and Representation: Implications for global Work

Taking a critical perspective of communication and culture, this session raises awareness of how the privilege-disadvantage dialectic plays out within societies, and how culture, race, politics, and socio-economic issues impact on leadership in a global context. We will take a look at the Actor Network Theory to understand more in depth how systems work.

 

Workshop 1: Day after session

Required Reading:

  • Martin, Judith and Nakayam, Thomas. Intercultural Communication in Contexts. New York: Mcgraw-hill, 2010. Pp. 50-52 & 65-71.

 

Recommended Reading:

  • Orbe, Mark and Harris, Tina. Interracial Communication: Theory in Practice. CA: Sage, 2008. Pp. 87-107.
  • Said, Edward. “Orientalism,” in The Post-Colonial Studies Reader. Eds. Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Triffin. New York: Routledge, 2006. Pp. 24-27.

Session 6

 

Defining Global Leadership

We will discuss definitions of global leadership and describe how the field has evolved. In addition, we will differentiate leadership from management and discuss the divers focuses and priorities of each responsibility. Students will define their own personal point of view on leadership (POV – to reflect in S:11).

Required Reading:

  • Mendenhall, Mark. “Leadership and the Birth of Global Leadership,” in Global leadership: Research, Practice, and Development. Ed. Mark Mendenhall, Joyce Osland, Allan Bird, Gary Oddou, and Martha Maznevski, et al. New York: Routledge, 2013. Pp. 1-20.

 

Recommended Reading:

  • Adair, John. The John Adair Lexicon of Leadership. London: Kogan Page, 2011. Pp 5-34.
  • Gundling, Earnest, Hogan, Terry, and Cvitkovich, Karen. What is Global Leadership: 10 Key Behaviors that define Great Global Leaders. Boston: Nicholas Brealey, 2011, Pp. 1-35.
  • Youssef, Carolyn, and Luthans, Fred. “Positive Global Leadership,” in Leadership in a Global Context (special issue). Eds. Richard Steers, Carlos Sanchez-Runde and Luciara Nardon, Volume 47, No. 4, 2012. Pp. 479-706.

PART II: FOSTER YOUR TALENTS

Session 7

 

The Leader as lifelong learner

In this session, we explore further competencies considered essential for leading in an environment that is rapidly changing, culturally diverse, and saddled with a variety of global challenges. Students will work on increasing knowledge and self-awareness in regard to concepts such as emotional and intercultural intelligence, preferred learning and working styles, and global mindset cultivation. For this purpose, we will use several assessment tools and discuss them. In addition, Students reflect on their personal development plan (started in S:1) and their cultural identity (started in S:2) and improve it.

 

Homework assignment: Students will assess their MBTI profile, their communication and conflict style.

Required Reading:

  • Goleman, Daniel. “What Makes a Leader?” in Harvard Business Review. 12546-PDF-ENG, 2010. Retrieved from http://hbsp.harvard.edu/.

 

Recommended Reading:

  • Boyacigiller, Nakiye, Schon Beechler, Sully Taylor, and Orly Levy. “The Crucial yet Elusive Global Mindset,” in Handbook of Global Management: A Guide to Managing Complexity. Eds. Henry Lane, Mark Mendenhall, Martha Maznevski, and Jeanne McNett. Hoboken: Blackwell, 2004. Pp. 81-93.
  • Gardenschwartz, Lee, Jorge Cherbosque, and Annita Rowe. “We Can’t All Just Get Along” in Emotional Intelligence for Managing Results in a Diverse World: The Hard Truth about Soft Skills in the Workplace. CA: Davies-Black, 2008. Pp. 15-42.

Session 8

Self-Assessment of leadership competencies

This session gives an overview of the research pertaining to the competencies and skills considered essential for effective global leadership. We will discuss the concept of the transformational-self and the differentiation between skills and traits. Students will receive feedback on their assessments and we will discuss them more in detail. In group, we will use the Johari Window to gain feedback.

Required Reading:

  • Osland, Joyce. “Overview of the Global Leadership Literature,” in Global leadership: Research, Practice, and Development. Eds. Mark Mendenhall, Joyce Osland, Allan Bird, Gary Oddou, and Martha Maznevski, et al. New York: Routledge, 2013. Ch. 3. Pp. 40-79.

 

Recommended Reading:

  • Bird, Allan, and Stevens, Michael. “Assessing Global Leadership Competencies,” in Global leadership: Research, Practice, and Development. Eds. Mark Mendenhall, Joyce Osland, Allan Bird, Gary Oddou, and Martha Maznevski, et al. New York: Routledge, 2013. Ch. 6. Pp. 113-140.
  • Stuart, Douglas. “Assessment Instruments for the Global Workforce” in Contemporary Leadership and Intercultural Competence: Exploring the Cross-Cultural Dynamics Within Organizations. Ed. Michael A. Moodian. California: Sage, 2009. Pp. 175-189.

Session 9

 

Leadership in Europe and Across the Globe: A comparative Analysis

Students will review the GLOBE studies and compare leadership styles across cultures with a special focus on Europe. In particular, students will explore if there are universal leadership traits and styles that transcend cultures. In addition, we will explore the model of Free Cooperation by C. Spehr that is represented by the EU.

 

Homework: EU Country presentation in teams of 2

Required Reading:

  • Grove, Cornelius. Leadership Style Variations across Cultures: Overview of GLOBE Research Findings 2005. Available from http://www.grovewell.com/pub-GLOBE-intro.html
  • Chhokar, Jagdeep S., Felix C. Brodbeck, and Robert J. House (eds.). “Culture and Leadership in 25 societies: Integration, Conclusions, and Future Directions,” in Culture and Leadership Across the World: The Globe Book of In-depth Studies of 25 Societies. NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2007. Pp. 1023-1066.

Session 10

 

Leadership in selected European Countries / EU Country Presentation

EU Country Presentation
Students will make short presentations profiling cultural differences and leadership styles of selected European countries. In preparation for their Model EU roles at the end of semester, students will focus on the leadership styles and cultural context of the countries they will be representing.

Required Reading: (relevant sections)

  • Chhokar, Jagdeep S., Felix C. Brodbeck, and Robert J. House (eds.). “Culture and Leadership in 25 societies: Integration, Conclusions, and Future Directions,” in Culture and Leadership Across the World: The Globe Book of In-depth Studies of 25 Societies. NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2007. Pp. 1023-1066 (and other chapters as required).
  • Ganon, Martin, and Rajnandini Pillai. Understanding Global Cultures: Metaphorical Journeys through 29 Nations, Clusters of Nations, Continents, and Diversity. CA: Sage, 2010 (relevant sections).

Session 11

 

Leadership Styles and POV / EU Country Presentation

EU Country Presentation

 

In this session, we take a look at various approaches to the study of leadership. One approach is the connective leadership model with its direct, relational, and instrumental styles. Another approach argues that authenticity—sticking to one’s own values and principles—rather than style constitutes effective leadership. Students will reflect on their own personal point of view on leadership

(POV – started in S: 6)

 

 

Required Reading:

 

Recommended Reading:

  • George, William. “Leadership is Authenticity, Not Style,” in Authentic Leadership: Rediscovering the Secrets to Creating Lasting Value. CA: Jossey-Bass, 2003. Pp. 11-25.
  • Hall, Tony, and Karen Janman. The Leadership Illusion. UK: Palgrave Macmillian, 2010.

Part III: MOTIVATING AND LEADING OTHERS

Session 12

 

Leadership and Gender / EU Country Presentation if needed

This session takes a look at the influence of gender on leadership styles and behavior. We will discuss the differences between both by analyzing and comparing successful female leader with male leader. The theme of gender stereotyping and how this varies across cultures is also discussed.

Required Reading:

  • Appelbaum, Steven. "Gender and Leadership? Leadership and Gender? A Journey through the Landscape of Theories," in Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 24, No. 1, (2003), pp. 43-51.
  • Ibarra, Herminia, and Otilia Obodaru. “Women and the Vision Thing,” in Harvard Business Review, (2009). Retrieved from R0901E-PDF-ENG.
  • Mayer, Catherine, Tristana Moore, and Mark Thompson. “Merkel’s Moment,” in Time, Vol. 175, No. 12010, pp. 32-35. Retrieved from EBSCO/host.

Recommended Reading:

  • Jalalzai, Farida and Krook, Mona Lena. “Beyond Hillary and Benazir: Women’s Political Leadership Worldwide,” in International Political Science Review, Vol. 3, No. 1, (2010), pp. 5–23. Doi: 10.1177/0192512109354470
  • Burke, Ronald. “Cultural Values and Women’s Work and Career Experiences,” in Cambridge Handbook of Culture, Organizations, and Work. Eds. Rabi Bhagat and Richard Steers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009, pp. 442-483.

Session 13

 

Leading Global Teams

In this session, the essential characteristics and necessary conditions for enabling high performance teams are discussed. In particular, the focus is on issues such as building respect and trust among team members, engaging in innovative and creative processes, and coping with trans-cultural boundary crossing. In this context we will discuss the virtual impact on global teams and question, how to maintain the flow of knowledge and information, especially in a virtual working environment, and the concepts of motivation and willingness.

Required Reading:

  • Maznevski, Martha and Chui, Celia. “Leading Global Teams,” in Global leadership: Research, Practice, and Development. Eds. Mark Mendenhall, Joyce Osland, Allan Bird, Gary Oddou, and Martha Maznevski, et al. New York: Routledge, 2013. Pp. 141-182.

 

Recommended Readings:

  • Adler, Nancy, and Allison Gundersen. “Managing Multicultural Teams,” in International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior. OH: South-Western, 2008. Chapter 5, Pp 126-149.
  • Mockaitis A, Rose E, and Zettinig P. “The power of individual cultural values in global virtual teams,” in International Journal Of Cross Cultural Management. August 2012; 12(2). Pp. 193-210.
  • Davis, Donald and Bryant, Janet. “Influence at a Distance: Leadership in Global Virtual Teams,” in Advances in Global Leadership, Volume. UK: Emerald Group, 2003. Pp. 303-340.

Session 14

 

Leading Change and Innovation

The ability to effectively handle change is a key prerequisite skill of a global leader. Using concrete examples from the field, we will highlight how global leaders must act as catalysts of change and innovation by inspiring and motivating; by creating the right vision and communicating this clearly; and also by building a community of trust and commitment within their organizations. For that, we will discuss the impacts and boundaries of change management and introduce strategy models. Finally, we will transfer the EU approach into business and have a look at the concept of Free Job Staffing by Kerstin Spurk and further developed in co-creation with Simone Hoferer.

 

Workshop 2: : Leadership Training with Horses: Dates announced in class

Required Reading:

  • Osland, Joyce. “Leading Global Change,” in Global leadership: Research, Practice, and Development. Eds. Mark Mendenhall, Joyce Osland, Allan Bird, Gary Oddou, and Martha Maznevski, et al. New York: Routledge, 2013. Pp 183-214.
  • Rock, David. “Managing with the Brain in Mind,” in Strategy and Business, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.strategy-business.com/article/09306?gko=5df7f

 

Recommended Reading:

  • Kotter, John. “What Leaders Really Do,” in Harvard Business Review’s 10 Must Reads: On Leadership. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School, 2011. Pp. 37-55.
  • Denning, Peter, and Robert Dunham. “Getting Your Ideas Adopted” in The Innovator’s Way: Essential Practices Successful Innovation. London: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2010.
  • Berkun, Scott. The Myths of Innovation. CA: O’Reilly Media, 2010.

Session 15

 

Leadership in Business: Corporate Social Responsibility

As the world struggles to recover from the global financial crisis and recent irresponsible corporate behavior, business leaders today face the challenge of regaining the trust and confidence of society. Taking a case study approach, we will explore specific examples of corporate misconduct as well as exemplary socially responsible behavior in a business context.

Required Reading:

  • Stahl, Günter. “Responsible Global Leadership,” in Global leadership: Research, Practice, and Development. Eds. Mark Mendenhall, Joyce Osland, Allan Bird, Gary Oddou, Martha Maznevski, Michael Stevens, Günter Stahl. New York: Routledge, 2013. Pp. 240-259.

 

Recommended Reading:

  • Morrison, Allen. “Ethical Standards and Global Leadership,” in Advances in Global Leadership. Eds. William Mobley and Elizabeth Weldon. Oxford: Elsevier, Vol. 4, (2006), pp. 165-179. doi:10.1016/S1535-1203(06)04012-3
  • Kaptein, M., & Tulder, R. “Toward Effective Stakeholder Dialogue,” in Business and Society Review, Vol. 108, No. 2 (2003), pp. 203-224.
  • Appiah, Kwame Anthony. Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers. New York: Penguin Books, 2007. Pp. 1-31.

Session 16

 

Leadership in the Non-Profit Sector

Leaders in the NGO sector often face a multitude of challenges that often requires long working hours with limited resources in areas that are burdened with political, economic, and environmental problems. Not surprisingly, studies show a leadership deficit in this sector. We assess the challenges of developing a new generation of NGO leaders.

 

Handout: Final paper as case study

Required Reading:

  • Hailey J, James R. “Trees Die From the Top: International Perspectives on NGO Leadership Development,” in Voluntas: International Journal Of Voluntary & Nonprofit Organizations, Vol. 15, No. 4, (Dec. 2004), pp. 343-353.
  • Neha, Arora. “An Exclusive Study of NGOs Leaders Working Style,” in International Journal of Management & Information Technology, Volume 1, No 3, (Sept. 2012).

Recommended Reading:

  • Hardy, Bruce. Leadership in NGO's: Is it all that different than the For-profit sector?” in Canadian Manager Spring, Vol. 4, No. 6, (2007).
  • Doh Jonathon, and Guay Terrence. “Corporate Social Responsibility, Public Policy, and NGO Activism in Europe and the United States: An Institutional-Stakeholder Perspective,” in Journal Of Management Studies, Vol. 43, No. 1, (Jan. 2006), pp 47-73.
  • Negin, Joel. “Reviving dead aid: making international development assistance work,” in Lowy Institute for International Policy, Vol. 24, No. 2, (2010), pp 171-173.

Session 17

 

Leadership and Politics: Focus on the EU

In this session, we turn our focus to the study of leadership in the political arena. In particular we will focus on the challenges faced by Germany in its role as the reluctant leader in the EU. Students will explore how institutional power differentials impact on leadership effectiveness in the EU. For that, we will use the knowledge about cultural differences, system theory, and the concept of Free Cooperation to highlight the challenges give in the EU.

Required Reading:

  • Peele Gillian. Leadership in Politics: A Case for a Closer Relationship. Leadership, Vol 1 (2), (2005), pp. 187-204.
  • Sandschneider, Eberhard. State Power within European Integration: On the Limits and Context of Germany’s Power in the Union. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Auswärtige Politik, (May, 2013).

 

Recommended Reading:

  • Keohane, Nannerl. On Leadership. Perspectives on Politics. Vol. 3, (2005), pp 705-722. doi:10.1017/S1537592705050395.
  • Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Prince. Translated by W.K. Mariott (1905). Retrieved from http://www.constitution.org/mac/prince00.htm

Session 18

 

My Leadership Development: A Review

Students will make short statements about their leadership development, learning, and experiences during their semester abroad. Based on your POV, your PDP, and CI, guiding questions for this session will be: What have I learned about leadership? What have I learned about leadership in the EU context? What has been my personal experience of leadership during this semester? Final remarks from instructor will conclude the course.

 

 

Required readings: 
  • Adler, Nancy, and Allison Gundersen. International Dimensions of Organizational Behaviour. OH: South-Western, 2008.
  • Appelbaum, Steven. "Gender and Leadership? Leadership and Gender? A Journey through the Landscape of Theories," in Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 24/1, 2003, pp. 43-51.
  • Black, J. Stewart. “The Mindset of Global Leaders,” in Advances in Global Leadership. Eds. William Mobley and Elizabeth Weldon. Oxford: Elsevier, 2006, Vol. 4, pp. 181-200. doi:10.1016/S1535-1203(06)04012-3(2006).
  • Chhokar, Jagdeep S., Felix C. Brodbeck, and Robert J. House (eds.). “Culture and Leadership in 25 societies: Integration, Conclusions, and Future Directions,” in Culture and Leadership Across the World: The Globe Book of In depth Studies of 25 Societies. NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2007. Pp. 1023-1066.
  • Ganon, Martin, and Rajnandini Pillai. Understanding Global Cultures: Metaphorical Journeys through 29 Nations, Clusters of Nations, Continents, and Diversity. CA: Sage, 2010.
  • George, William, Peter Sims, Andrew McLean, and Diana Mayer. “Discovering Your Authentic Leadership,” in Harvard Business Review, R0702H-PDF-ENG, 2007. Retrieved from http://hbsp.harvard.edu/
  • Goleman, Daniel. “What Makes a Leader?” in Harvard Business Review. 12546-PDF-ENG, 2010. Retrieved from http://hbsp.harvard.edu/.
  • Grove, Cornelius. Leadership Style Variations across Cultures: Overview of GLOBE Research Findings 2005. Available from http://www.grovewell.com/pub-GLOBE-intro.html
  • Hailey J, James R. “Trees Die From the Top: International Perspectives on NGO Leadership Development,” in Voluntas: International Journal Of Voluntary & Nonprofit Organizations, Vol. 15, No. 4, (Dec. 2004), pp. 343-353.
  • Hofstede, Geert, and Gert Jan Hofstede. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005.
  • Ibarra, Herminia, and Otilia Obodaru. “Women and the Vision Thing,” in Harvard Business Review, (2009). Retrieved from R0901E-PDF-ENG.
  • International Institute for Management Development Cultural Perspectives Questionnaire (2011). Retrieved from http://www.imd.org/research/projects/CPQ.cfm
  • Komives, Susan, and Lucas, Nance. “Strategies for Change,” in Exploring Leadership: For College Students who want to make a Difference. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2007. Ch. 12.
  • Lipman-Blumen, Jean. “Connective Leadership: A New Paradigm,” in Drucker Magazine, Vol(1), No. 38 (1997). Retrieved from http://www.achievingstyles.com/articles/a_new_paradigm.asp
  • Martin, Judith and Nakayam, Thomas. Intercultural Communication in Contexts. New York: Mcgraw-hill, 2010. Pp. 50-52 & 65-71.
  • Mayer, Catherine, Tristana Moore, and Mark Thompson. “Merkel’s Moment,” in Time, Vol. 175, No. 1 (2010), pp. 32-35. Retrieved from EBSCO/host.
  • Maznevski, Martha and Chui, Celia. “Leading Global Teams,” in Global leadership: Research, Practice, and Development. Eds. Mark Mendenhall, Joyce Osland, Allan Bird, Gary Oddou, and Martha Maznevski, et al. New York: Routledge, 2013. Pp. 141-182.
  • Mendenhall, Mark. “Leadership and the Birth of Global Leadership,” in Global leadership: Research, Practice, and Development. Eds. Mark Mendenhall, Joyce Osland, Allan Bird, Gary Oddou, and Martha Maznevski; et al. New York: Routledge, 2013. Pp. 1-17.
  • Neha, Arora. “An Exclusive Study of NGOs Leaders Working Style,” in International Journal of Management & Information Technology, Volume 1, No 3, (Sept. 2012).
  • Osland, Joyce. “Overview of the Global Leadership Literature,” in Global leadership: Research, Practice, and Development. Eds. Mark Mendenhall, Joyce Osland, Allan Bird, Gary Oddou, and Martha Maznevski, et al. New York: Routledge, 2013. Pp. 40-79.
  • Osland, Joyce. “Leading Global Change,” in Global leadership: Research, Practice, and Development. Eds. Mark Mendenhall, Joyce Osland, Allan Bird, Gary Oddou, and Martha Maznevski, et al. New York: Routledge, 2013. Pp 183-214.
  • Peele Gillian. Leadership in Politics: A Case for a Closer Relationship. Leadership, Vol 1 (2), 2005, pp. 187-204.
  • Rock, David. “Managing with the Brain in Mind,” in Strategy and Business, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.strategy-business.com/article/09306?gko=5df7f
  • Sandschneider, Eberhard. State Power within European Integration: On the Limits and Context of Germany’s Power in the Union. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Auswärtige Politik, (May, 2013).
  • Stahl, Günter. “Responsible Global Leadership,” in Global leadership: Research, Practice, and Development. Eds. Mark Mendenhall, Joyce Osland, Allan Bird, Gary Oddou, Martha Maznevski, Michael Stevens, Günter Stahl. New York: Routledge, 2013. Pp. 240-259.