Polity, Community Development, Urban Life in South Africa

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Course Information
Discipline(s): 
Service Learning
Economics
Sociology
Terms offered: 
Fall, Spring
Credits: 
3
Language of instruction: 
English
Contact Hours: 
45 in addition to 60 hours of service learning
Prerequisites: 
None
Additional student cost: 

None.

Description: 

The course will provide an understanding of poverty, theories of development, principles that underpin development programmes, and various approaches to addressing poverty. The course also focuses on community development, which is an integral part of the South African developmental system.  It has been adopted by various public sectors and private sector entities as an approach, philosophy, process, method, and strategy to address basic material, physical- and psycho-social needs of poor and vulnerable communities. Community development is cross-cutting and implementation is often challenged by a variety of policies and programmes that are not coherent, integrated, or coordinated and this impacts service delivery. The course will explore some key challenges to community development in South Africa and explore responses to them. Furthermore the course will expose students to the lived experiences of persons from urban and rural communities. Above all, the course equips or provides students with theoretical and analytical tools with which to engage the world of development in their endeavor to be global citizens. Through practical development work (service learning), students will also able to reflect on and critique widely accepted concepts and theories thereby contributing towards theoretical development.  During this course, you will develop an ‘all-in-one’ project where your research and your service learning are intertwined. Thus a research focus should be formulated early in the course so that your service learning provides an opportunity for fieldwork.

Attendance policy: 

Attendance of weekly lectures, field trips as well as completion of the 60 hours of service-learning is compulsory. Students who cannot attend weekly lectures and field trips due to legitimate reasons such as sickness, religious, or cultural grounds are required to notify the lecturer and present a sick certificate (if needed).

Learning outcomes: 

By the end of this course, the student will be able to:

  • Illustrate dominant and alternative concepts, theories and approaches to, poverty and community development.
  • Integrate development concepts and theory into practice to analyse needs and to collectively plan and facilitate interventions in communities where they work in order to collectively build community capital to bring about social change and justice.
  • Demonstrate some critical insight into the challenges faced by communities, practitioners and government in eradicating poverty in South Africa urban communities; and propose novel solutions to these challenges. 
  • Above all, develop the critical skills needed for one to be a responsible global citizen and engaged scholar. 
Method of presentation: 

Learning will be facilitated through lectures, individual and group exercises, debates and discussions, student presentations, assignments, selected guest lectures (by practitioners), and field trips. Lectures will provide students with the theoretical and analytical tools (theories and concepts) with which to make sense of the world of development and engage in development work through research and service learning.

Field study: 

Three-hour field trips will focus on local, community development projects and will bring together some of the coursework with context-specific, developmental practice. The sites you will visit are listed in the weekly schedule. Student will be notified of any changes in terms of Field Trip Site a week in advance.

Field Trip 1: Bethel Projects Women (Steenberg, Cape Town)

Bethel Projects staff will present on the history of the community, community challenges and problems. The project staff will also share with students their development approach or model and its impact on the socio-economic development of the community(s) they serve. Students will be taken on a tour of community such as Vrygrond and Steenberg where Bethel Projects operates. The Bethel Projects will showcase some of its flagship projects, and students will be given a chance to ask questions or contribute to discussions.

Field Trip 2: The Habitat for Humanity (Newlands, Cape Town)

Habitat for Humanity is an international organisation that works in the housing sector. South Africa is grappling with the challenge of providing in its citizens proper and dignified housing. Habitat for Humanity staff will talk about the organisation’s target community, its development approach or model as well as its impact on their development outcomes and the socio-economic development of the community(s) they serve. During the presentation take note of the dynamics of community participation in development projects. Students will be given a chance to ask questions or contribute to discussions.

Field Trip 3: The Primary Science Project (PSP) (Phillipi, Cape Town)

The PSP is an NGO that trains teachers in the area of science education. It is also involved in the management of the Edith Stephens Wetland Park, a national nature reserve. Together with staff from the Western Cape Government they will present on natural resource mismanagement and environmental education and awareness. They will be a role play that focuses on the most effective way of teaching children about science and the environment. You will be given an opportunity to participate in this role play. They will take us on a tour of the Wetland Park and who us some of the rare species, unique to South Africa. You will also be given an opportunity to ask questions during the field trip.

SERVICE-LEARNING
All students participating in the course will be required to fulfil 60 hours of volunteer work at an agency that contributes to community development across the broader Cape Town area. Students will be required to find time during the week or weekend to complete the 60 hours of volunteer work over the semester. Service learning is pre-arranged by IES Abroad and transportation is provided. The work done at the agency will be agreed upon between the agency and the student and must add value to the functioning of the organisation. This process will be closely supervised and monitored by the course coordinator and faculty. The service learning sites for 2016 are:

The Sozo Foundation,

Sisters4Sisters

The Saartjie Baartman Centre for Abused Women and Children

Maitland Garden Village-Greenlight Project.

Students can also do service learning with the Student Health and Welfare Centers Organisation, UCT (SHOWCO). Details of projects and respective research projects at these centers are provided in the attached handout.

Required work and form of assessment: 
  • Reaction Paper – 10%
  • Mid-Term Exam – 15%
  • Portfolio of Evidence – 25%
  • Research Project – 50%

Course Participation
Participation in all class discussions/debates and attendance for all site visits is mandatory. Students are expected to prepare for each class by doing the necessary reading and reflection, in addition to regularly checking notices on the VULA website.  All assignments must be submitted via Turnitin on the VULA platform and with a signed Plagiarism Declaration.
The University of Cape Town late assignment policy will apply and is as follows: All Assignments late by one day will receive a 5% penalty. For every day late thereafter 2% will be deducted and no assignments will be accepted later than 6 days after the deadline (this includes weekends). 

REACTION PAPER (10%)
2 pages (800-1000 words).  Each student presents one relevant paper ahead of a class session. A reaction paper is a response to writers to one or more texts you read. Having selected your theme(s) and readings to present, you should come to class ready to answer questions from the class, the audience. You should also bring a list of questions (arising from the reading/paper) or issues you find peculiar and intriguing.
After the presentation students should document their work on the presentation in light of comments by the audience. You should demonstrate that the audience’s comments have been addressed in the final hand-in.
Due Date: Submission dates will vary based on the reading you are assigned. 1-2 students will present per week.  Individual assignments are established by the instructor during the second week of lectures.

MID TERM EXAM (15%)
This closed-book examination will consist of four structured questions requiring essay-type answers to give you the opportunity to demonstrate your understanding of theories, concepts and approaches to development. The exam questions will also require you to apply concepts and approaches to practical situations and case studies as well as drawing from your experiential learning throughout the course. You will be examined on selected content covered in the course. The exam will be 1.5 hours.

PORTFOLIO OF EVIDENCE (25%)
Once completed this piece of work constitutes a folder of evidence of what you have done in the course and more importantly what you have learned.  You will be required to keep a file which you will build on throughout the course (electronic files are encouraged).  This file will contain various sections and will serve as your resource and evidence of work done.  A word of caution:  do not leave this task for the last week.  You need to be working on your portfolio from the first lecture.

Your portfolio MUST contain the following:

  • Introduction – Who you are, and your background. 
  • Research ideas – This section includes research ideas conceived during the proposal phase that you’ve presented to, and had reviewed by, the lecturer.
  • Field Work – Photos or any work you developed in your service learning.  You may be creative and decide what you would like to add to this section.
  • Personal Reflection – This section contains an evaluation of your own learning. Details of this reflective piece are provided below.

Details of Personal Reflection:

  • Pre-conception/perceptions prior to arrival in Cape Town - Reflection on personal conceptions (or misconceptions), what was known/understood concerning South Africa’s social, economic, political and cultural dynamics/context prior to arrival. Also include how this (by the end of the course) would have been confirmed, reinforced, contradicted or furthered by their experiential learning process in the IES Abroad programme and outside the IES Abroad Programme.
  • Challenges and positive experiences, and lessons learned - A reflection of personal experiential learning (the ‘highs’ and ‘lows’). This should highlight and explain why these are ‘highs’ and ‘lows’ as well as give an indication about what your expectations prior to the fieldwork were. You should ‘jot down’ and explain lessons learnt from your challenges, successes and/or failures in the whole learning journey. These reflections should be focused on your encounters with community(s) as well and how you feel about the whole learning journey.
  • Engaged scholarship and individual skills development - A reflection on theoretical and analytical concepts learnt in class, and how useful you think these theories and concepts are in making sense of what is happening in communities. This includes reflection on research and analytical skills gained throughout the course, coupled with practical non-academic skills such as interpersonal, cross-cultural communication, and gaining rapport with community members, as well as teamwork development. This should include a discussion of how to balance between being observers (academics trying to understand the world/society around them) and engaged global citizens bent on making social change (or changing that world).  You should also reflect on your research competence. What research, academic, social, and technical skills were you able to capitalize on? Reflect also on team dynamics and your experience of teamwork throughout the course.
  • Recommendations - In light of the above, here you should reflect on what you did best and give advice on how other students can benefit from your experience. Coupled with this, please consider areas you could improve upon.

RESEARCH PROJECT (50%)
The student research project has many components. The student research must consider an element of poverty and community development in South Africa tied to their service learning projects and material covered in lectures. You will be expected to put forward a research question, devise a methodology to test your theory, describe your results and draw conclusions giving your view of the implications of their findings for community development in South Africa.
In groups, students will work on their individual projects together, putting together a preliminary “Presentation of Research Topic,” outlining the (1) Research Problem (aims) (2) Methodology (3) Literature Review (draft) (4) Timelines for Conducting Research. This initial presentation will not be marked or graded, but it will enable students to get feedback from the lecturer and comments from other students in the course. You are encouraged to consult with the lecturer throughout the research process. The presentation and continuous consultations with the lecturer enables each research project to be tracked, and completed on time. Students will have seven hours (7 hours) of supervision, consultations and feedback with the lecturer regarding their service-learning and research papers.  

  • Final Research Paper (40%) (15 pages) (Font – Times New Roman 12; 1.5 line spacing) to support your movie clip (see below) must be submitted shortly after the symposium. The purpose of this document is to provide a hardcopy document which summarises your research project. This research report should include your Methodology and Literature Review either inserted directly, or revised in order to improve the flow of this final report.
  1. Introduction (background to the topic as well as context)
  2. Research Aims (which includes project aim, and rationale for project choice, as well as supporting academic framework)
  3. Methodology (outlining planning process, challenges dealt with, participation with local community, data collection and analysis)
  4. Findings and Discussion (outlining what ultimately was achieved, and where you took the initiative and/or went beyond the call of "duty"
  5. Recommendations and Conclusion (describing what still needs to be done, and how the next student could take the project to the next level).
  6. Appendices (additional information that will be useful for the student picking up this project in the following semester).
  • Presentation of Research Topic – Documentary and Presentation (10%)
    • Documentary/video must be a “stand alone” version of your research paper. This 3 minute movie clip should demonstrate your research project, as well as reflect your collective learning in this course, and will draw on what you have learnt in class as well as what you have seen on field trips and have experienced in your service learning work. The movie clip will be marked during the Symposium, based on elements of the project that should be clearly discernible from watching the video. As such, it will be marked in a manner more or less similar to your research paper, i.e. with additional considerations, namely:
  1. Research project content (introduction and project aim clearly articulated; methodology demonstrated; evidence of how academic literature been integrated into the project design)
  2. Research project implementation (Evidence of forward planning; engaged with local community; thought out of the box - showed initiative; illustrated how challenges were dealt with).
  3. Video production (Visuals align with content; Sound appropriate for content, adds to video message, not distracting; content communicated through video production).
  4. Personal presentation and questions and answer session (Responding to questions showed satisfactory grasp of content and awareness methodology; Body language and appearance shows confidence in presenting, makes eye contact with audience, no distracting body movements.
  • Symposium: The symposium presents an opportunity for all IES students to come together to learn more about the work done and material covered for the semester.  Structure your presentation bearing in mind that the course combines your service-learning with your research project. Since students will undertake service learning and research work in teams, they will present their research in the same teams. Each group will get 20 minutes to do a short presentation on their work in the course. Each group member should present, so it is up to the group to allocate sections of the presentation amongst group members. You will be encouraged to present your movie clip, however there are 2 additional minutes, should you wish to expand on your movie clip. Marks will be allocated for your documentary, as well your response questions from the audience. Students are encouraged to be creative in putting together the presentation.  Credit will be given to students who present their work holistically using literature, developing an academic argument and with innovation.

 

content: 
Week Content Readings & Preparation
Week 1 Lecture: Introduction to the Course

Session1: Course Elements

  • Learning objectives and assessment
  • Synergies between service learning and the research paper
  • Administration and support

Session 2: Introducing Key Concepts

  • Community (community stakeholders) as illusive concepts
  • Poverty (urban poverty) as an abstract concept
  • Development and Social Change
  • Civil society including different types of civil society organisations

Session 3: Introduction to IES Research Projects

  • Research process & Methods
  • Research Timelines
  • Research Ethics
  • Schenck R, Nel H and Louw H (2010). Introduction to Participatory Community Practice. Pretoria  UNISA Press Chapter 1 pages 5-8
  • Jansen, E.G et al. (2000). Constraints and Opportunities for Community Participation in Lack Victoria Fisheries. Forum For Development Studies, 1-2000, 95-102 (Focus on the concept of community)
  • Szirma, A (2005). Developing Countries and the Concept of Development: The Dynamics of Socio-Economic Development -An Introduction Excerpt. Cambridge University Press
  • Crow, G & Mah, A (2012). Conceptualisations and Meanings of ‘Community’: The Theory and Operationalization of a Contested Concept.
  • Walsh, J.C & High, S (1999). Rethinking the Concept of Community. HSS Journal. hssh.journals.yorku.ca/index.php/hssh/article/download/4623/3817
  • Cooper, D. Wickham, S & Bailey, T (1997). The Research Journey Workbook: Research & Academic Development
Week 2 Lecture: Understanding the Broader South African Context

Session 1: South African Context

  • Historical context of development and underdevelopment
  • current socioeconomic and political context

Session 2: Community Mapping

  • community context and dynamics
  • community mapping as an exercise necessary for understanding the community context
  • relevance of community dynamics to practitioner/student’s field
  • Schenck R, Nel H & Louw H (2010). Introduction to Participatory Community Practice. Pretoria  UNISA Press Chapter 6 pages 140 -150
  • Chavis D.M. & Wandersman A. (1990). Sense of Community in the Urban Environment: A Catalyst for Participation and Community Development. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18 (1). pp. 55-81.
  • Provincial Government of the Western Cape (2014). State of Cape Town 2014. City Reports https://www.capetown.gov.za/en/stats/CityReports/Documents/SOCT%2014%20report% 20complete.pdf
  • Video Clip: Africa 360 racial integration
Week 3 Lecture: Perspectives on Poverty

Session 1: Different Perspectives of Poverty and Development in South Africa

  • exploring how different people (academics, development practitioners, community members) think about poverty in different ways
  • exploring different perspectives (definitions) of poverty (a) income poverty, multi-dimensional view and sustainable livelihoods perspective etc.
  • implications of these poverty perspectives for community development initiatives
  • exploring examples from development agencies and NGOs
  • Schenck R, Nel H and Louw H (2010). Introduction to Participatory Community Practice. Pretoria  UNISA Press Chapter 1 pages 8-25
  • Akindola R.B. (2009). Towards a definition of Poverty: poor people’s perspectives and implications for poverty. Journal of Developing Studies, 25 (2), pp. 121-150.

Field Trip 1:

Bethel Projects Women, Steenberg.

Read lecture 2 and 3 material in preparation for the field trip and responding to the Assignment question.
Week 4 Lecture: Urban Poverty in South Africa

Session 1: The Nature & Extent of Urban Poverty in South Africa

  • Understanding different categories of poverty
  • Exploring the poverty profile and impact of poverty in South Africa
  • Nature and extent of inequality in SA, and how poverty and inequality is inextricably linked in South Africa 

Session 2: Research Proposal Presentations

  • Students will present their final research proposals
  • Video Clip: Facing Poverty in Cape Town
  • Carter M. & May J. (2001). One Kind of Freedom: Poverty Dynamics in Post-apartheid South Africa. World Development, 29 (12) pp.1987-2006.
  • Seekings, J (2010). Race, Class and Inequality in the South African City. Centre for Social Science Research (CSSR) Working Paper No. 283.
  • UNDP (2014). South Africa: Human Development Index. United Nations Development Programme. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/ZAF.pdf
  • Aliber M. (2003). Chronic Poverty in South Africa: Incidence, Causes and Policies. World Development, 31 (3) pp.473-490.
  • De Swardt, C. et al (2005). Urban Poverty in Cape Town. Environment and Urbanization, 17 (2), pp. 101-111
  • UN-HABITAT (2014). The State of African Cities 2014. Re-imagining Sustainable Urban Transitions. (Note: focus on Southern African cities).
Week 5 Lecture: Development Theories

Session 1: Explaining Development & Underdevelopment

  • Exploring widely cited theories of development, i.e. Dependency Theory, Modernisation Theory and World systems theory
  • Considering how these theories try to explain why some nations are poor, i.e. the poverty and inequality between and within nations
  • Usefulness of these theories in explaining micro (community level) experiences of poverty
  • Matunhu, J (2011). A Critique of Modernization and Dependency Theories in Africa: Critical Assessment. African Journal of History and Culture Vol. 3(5), pp. 65-72.
  • Chivaura, V.G. (nd). Hunhu/Ubuntu: A Sustainable Approach to Endogenous Development, Bio-cultural Diversity and Protection of the Environment in Africa. Department of English, Media and Communication Studies, University of Zimbabwe.
Week 6 Exam

A Closed Book Examination: 1 Hour 30 Minutes

Students will be examined on material covered between Weeks 2 & 8

Students should read all of the material covered between Week 2 and Week 6 in preparation for the exam

Week 7 Lecture: Development Policy in South Africa

Session 1: Development Policy & Community Development in South Africa

  • The post-apartheid South African state’s policy response to poverty and inequality
  • Ways in which national policies have repercussions for local development
  • Critique of policies and practices of the post-apartheid state
  • Challenges the national government (and its local government) faces in its effort to create a better and dignified life for all citizens
  • Mogale T.M. (2005). Local governance and poverty reduction in South Africa. Progress in Development Studies, 5 (2), pp.135-143.
  • South Africa National Development Plan (2011)  http://www.info.gov.za/issues/national-development-plan/
  • Winkler T. (2008). When God and Poverty Collide: Exploring the Myths of Faith –sponsored community development. Urban Studies 45(10) 2099-2116
  • Carter M. & May J. (1999). Poverty, Livelihood and Class in Rural South Africa. World Development, 27 (1) pp. 1-20
  • Sseguya, H., Mazur, R. E., Njuki, J. M., & Owusu, F. Y. (2013). Determinants of participation and leadership in food security groups in Southeast Uganda: Implications for development programs and policies. Journal of Rural and Community Development, 8(1), 77-97.
Week 8 Lecture: Research Projects

Session 1: Report on Research Projects

  • Each research group will present the progress it has made in terms of its research project

Session 2: Sharing Experiences

  • Students will share ideas and experiences on their research projects and service learning
 
Week 9 Lecture: Principles of Development - Participatory Development

Session 1: Concept of Participation and Collective Agency

  • Participatory community development as an elusive concept, principle of development and development approach
  • Different forms of community participation as well as pros and cons of different forms of community participation.
  • The concept of ‘collective agency’ and own it relates to community development and participatory development.

Session 2: Bottom-up and Top-down Approaches to Community Development

  • State-led approaches to development (top-down) vs Community-led (bottom-up (participatory)
  • Possibility of middle ground between state-led and community-driven development
  • Recapping the concept of community participation, and how it relates to the two development approaches

Session 3: Case Study

  • South African case studies that elucidate these aspects of participatory community development.
  • Jovchelovitch S. & Campbell C. (2000). Health, Community and development: Towards a social Psychology of Participation. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 10, 255-270.
  • Rogers, N. P. (2012). Campus in the Country: Community College Involvement in rural community development. Journal of Rural and Community Development, 7(3), 164-183.
  • Gillebo T. (2006). Stakeholder Cooperation in Sustainable Development: Three Case Studies in Norway. Journal of Rural and Community Development, 3, 28-43.
  • Hiner C.C. & Galt R.E. (2011). Participation and Capacity Building in Community Visioning: NIMBYism and the Politics of the Rural-Urban Interface in Elk Grove, California. Journal of Rural and Community Development 6, (2), pp. 104–123.
  • Besser, T. (2013). Resilient Small Rural Towns and Community Shocks. Journal of Rural and Community Development, 8(1), 117-134.
  • Jansen, E.G et al. (2000). Constraints and Opportunities for Community Participation in Lack Victoria Fisheries. Forum For Development Studies, 1-2000, 95-132
  • Larrison, C.R. (1999). Comparison of Top-down and Bottom-up Community Development Interventions in Rural Mexico: Practical and Theoretical Implications for Community Development Programs. University of Georgia, United States of America (USA)
  • Mitlin, D & Thompson, J (1995). Participatory Approaches in Urban Areas: Strengthening Civil Society or Reinforcing the Status Quo? Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 7, No. 1, PP. 231-250 (Focus mainly on the South African Case Study)
  • Landman, K (2010). A Home Close to Opportunities in South Africa: Top Down Vision or Bottom up Demand? Journal Home Vol 56 , pp. 8 - 17

Week 9: Field Trip 2 

Habitat for Humanity, Newlands

Read week 9 lectures in preparation for the field trip.

Week 10:

Principles of Development 2: Sustainable Development

Session 1: Equity & Sustainability

  • Concepts and principles of equity and sustainability
  • Considering how the two concepts are interlinked 
  • In-depth look at sustainability, including the environmental sustainability dimension 
  • Assessing South Africa’s social programmes (particularly the social grants or targeted cash transfer programme) and other projects at NGOs in terms of sustainability.
  • Harris, J (2000). Basic Principles of Sustainable Development. Global Development and Environment Institute (G-DAE) Working Paper No. 00-04, Tufts University.
  • Lele, S &  Jayaraman, T (2011). Equity in the Context of Sustainable Development.  Note for UN-GSP Version 2.0
  • Potts, R (2012). Social Welfare in South Africa: Curing or Causing Poverty? Penn State Journal of International Affairs, 74 -92
  • Laubsche, J (2013). The Sustainability of the South African Welfare State, Sunlam, Published: August 7th, 2013.  
  • Swilling, M (2005). Rethinking the Sustainability of the South African City. Sustainability Institute, School of Public Management and Planning, University of Stellenbosch
Field Trip 3 The Primary Science Project, Philippi Read material for Week 9 lectures in preparation for the field trip

Week 11 Lecture:

New Social Movements & Development in South Africa

Session 1: The Rise of New Urban Social Movements South Africa

  • Conditions giving rise to new urban social movements in post-apartheid South Africa
  • What issues and problems social movements they rally around?
  • The role of community-based organisations (CBOs) and urban social movements in development in South Africa
  • The nature of state-civil society relations in South Africa
  • How the relationship evolved and changed throughout history.

Session 3: Summation of the Course & Preparation for the Symposium

  • Introduction to symposium objectives
  • Preparation for the symposium presentations (i.e. documentary and oral presentation)
  • Allocation of responsibilities among group members
  • Bond, P (2004). South Africa’s Resurgent Urban Social Movements The Case of Johannesburg, 1984, 1994, 2004. Paper presented to the School and Centre on 9 June 2004
  • Hataya, N (2009). Community-based Local Development and the Peace Initiative of the PDPMM in Colombia: Resource Mobilization Under Extreme Conditions Shigetomi, S & Makino, K ed). Protest and Social Movements in the Developing World, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, UK, pp.19-49.
  • De Wet, J (2010). On the Horns of Dilema: Non-profit Organisations’ Relations with the State in Post-apartheid South Africa. Africanus 40 (2) 2010, pp 3-17
  • De Wet, J (2012). Friends, Enemies or “Frienemies”: Development and Civil Society Organisations Relations with the State in a Democratic South Africa. Working Papers in Development Sociology and Social Anthropology, No. 370

Week 12:

IES Symposium 

Symposium: Present your Overall Learning in South Africa, including your Documentary/Video for research and service learning, and any highlights of your life in South Africa.

Submit your research paper and research documentary/video at the IES Office

 

 

Required readings: 
  • Aliber M. (2003). Chronic Poverty in South Africa: Incidence, Causes and Policies. World Development, 31 (3) pp.473-490.
  • Akindola R.B. (2009). Towards a definition of Poverty: poor people’s perspectives and implications for poverty. Journal of Developing Studies, 25 (2), pp. 121-150.
  • Besser, T. (2013). Resilient Small Rural Towns and Community Shocks. Journal of Rural and Community Development, 8(1), 117-134
  • Bond, P (2004). South Africa’s Resurgent Urban Social Movements: the Case of Johannesburg, 1984, 1994, 2004. Paper presented to the School and Centre on 9 June 2004
  • Carter M. & May J. (1999). Poverty, Livelihood and Class in Rural South Africa. World Development, 27 (1), pp. 1-20
  • Carter M. & May J. (2001). One Kind of Freedom: Poverty Dynamics in Post-apartheid South Africa. World Development, 29 (12) pp.1987-2006.
  • Chivaura, V.G (nd). Hunhu/Ubuntu: A Sustainable Approach to Endogenous development, Bio-cultural Diversity and Protection of the Environment in Africa. Department of English, Media and Communication Studies, University of Zimbabwe.
  • Cooper, D. Wickham, S & Bailey, T (1997). The Research Journey Workbook: Research & Academic Development
  • Crow, G & Mah, A (2012). Conceptualisations and Meanings of ‘Community’: The Theory and Operationalization of a Contested Concept.
  • De Swardt, C. et al (2005). Urban Poverty in Cape Town. Environment and Urbanization, 17 (2), pp. 101-111
  • De Wet, J (2010). On the Horns of Dilema: Non-profit Organisations’ Relations with the State in Post-apartheid South Africa. Africanus 40 (2), pp 3-17
  • De Wet, J (2012). Friends, Enemies or “Frienemies”: Development and Civil Society Organisations Relations with the State in a Democratic South Africa. Working Papers in Development Sociology and Social Anthropology, No. 370
  • Gillebo T. (2006). Stakeholder Cooperation in Sustainable Development: Three Case Studies in Norway. Journal of Rural and Community Development, Vol 3, 28-43.
  • Harris, J (2000). Basic Principles of Sustainable Development. Global Development and Environment Institute (G-DAE) Working Paper No. 00-04, Tufts University.
  • Hataya, N (2009). Community-based Local Development and the Peace Initiative of the PDPMM in Colombia: resource Mobilization Under Extreme Conditions Shigetomi, S & Makino, K ed). Protest and Social Movements in the Developing World, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, UK, pp.19-49.
  • Jansen, E.G et al. (2000). Constraints and Opportunities for Community Participation in Lack Victoria Fisheries. Forum for Development Studies, 1-2000, 95-102 (Focus on the concept of community)
  • Hiner C.C. & Galt R.E. (2011). Participation and Capacity Building in Community Visioning: NIMBYism and the Politics of the Rural-Urban Interface in Elk Grove, California. Journal of Rural and Community Development 6, (2), pp. 104–123.
  • Jansen, E.G et al. (2000). Constraints and Opportunities for Community Participation in Lack Victoria Fisheries. Forum for Development Studies, 1-2000, 95-132
  • Jovchelovitch S. & Campbell C. (2000). Health, Community and development: Towards a social Psychology of Participation. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 10: 255-270.
  • Landman, K (2010). A Home Close to Opportunities in South Africa: Top Down Vision or Bottom up Demand? Journal Home Vol 56, pp. 8 – 17
  • Larrison, C.R. (1999). Comparison of Top-down and Bottom-up Community Development Interventions in Rural Mexico: Practical and Theoretical Implications for Community Development Programs. University of Georgia, United States of America (USA)
  • Laubsche, J (2013).The Sustainability of the South African Welfare State, Published: August 7th 2013 by Sunlam 
  • Lele, S & Jayaraman, T (2011). Equity in the Context of Sustainable Development.  Note for UN-GSP Version 2.0
  • Matunhu, J (2011). A Critique of Modernization and Dependency Theories in Africa: Critical Assessment.  African Journal of History and Culture Vol. 3(5), pp. 65-72.
  • Mitlin, D & Thompson, J (1995). Participatory Approaches in Urban Areas: Strengthening Civil Society or Reinforcing the Status Quo? Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 7, No. 1, PP. 231-250 (Focus mainly on the South African Case Study)
  • Mogale T.M. (2005). Local Governance and Poverty Reduction in South Africa. Progress in Development Studies, 5 (2), pp.135-143.
  • Potts, R (2012). Social Welfare in South Africa: Curing or Causing Poverty?
  • Penn State Journal of International Affairs, 74 -92
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