||Readings & Preparation
|Week 1 Lecture: Introduction to the Course
Session1: Course Elements
- Learning objectives and assessment
- Synergies between service learning and the research paper
- Administration and support
Session 2: Introducing Key Concepts
- Community (community stakeholders) as illusive concepts
- Poverty (urban poverty) as an abstract concept
- Development and Social Change
- Civil society including different types of civil society organisations
Session 3: Introduction to IES Research Projects
- Research process & Methods
- Research Timelines
- Research Ethics
- Schenck R, Nel H and Louw H (2010). Introduction to Participatory Community Practice. Pretoria UNISA Press Chapter 1 pages 5-8
- Jansen, E.G et al. (2000). Constraints and Opportunities for Community Participation in Lack Victoria Fisheries. Forum For Development Studies, 1-2000, 95-102 (Focus on the concept of community)
- Szirma, A (2005). Developing Countries and the Concept of Development: The Dynamics of Socio-Economic Development -An Introduction Excerpt. Cambridge University Press
- Crow, G & Mah, A (2012). Conceptualisations and Meanings of ‘Community’: The Theory and Operationalization of a Contested Concept.
- Walsh, J.C & High, S (1999). Rethinking the Concept of Community. HSS Journal. hssh.journals.yorku.ca/index.php/hssh/article/download/4623/3817
- Cooper, D. Wickham, S & Bailey, T (1997). The Research Journey Workbook: Research & Academic Development
|Week 2 Lecture: Understanding the Broader South African Context
Session 1: South African Context
- Historical context of development and underdevelopment
- current socioeconomic and political context
Session 2: Community Mapping
- community context and dynamics
- community mapping as an exercise necessary for understanding the community context
- relevance of community dynamics to practitioner/student’s field
- Schenck R, Nel H & Louw H (2010). Introduction to Participatory Community Practice. Pretoria UNISA Press Chapter 6 pages 140 -150
- Chavis D.M. & Wandersman A. (1990). Sense of Community in the Urban Environment: A Catalyst for Participation and Community Development. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18 (1). pp. 55-81.
- Provincial Government of the Western Cape (2014). State of Cape Town 2014. City Reports https://www.capetown.gov.za/en/stats/CityReports/Documents/SOCT%2014%20report% 20complete.pdf
- Video Clip: Africa 360 racial integration
|Week 3 Lecture: Perspectives on Poverty
Session 1: Different Perspectives of Poverty and Development in South Africa
- exploring how different people (academics, development practitioners, community members) think about poverty in different ways
- exploring different perspectives (definitions) of poverty (a) income poverty, multi-dimensional view and sustainable livelihoods perspective etc.
- implications of these poverty perspectives for community development initiatives
- exploring examples from development agencies and NGOs
- Schenck R, Nel H and Louw H (2010). Introduction to Participatory Community Practice. Pretoria UNISA Press Chapter 1 pages 8-25
- Akindola R.B. (2009). Towards a definition of Poverty: poor people’s perspectives and implications for poverty. Journal of Developing Studies, 25 (2), pp. 121-150.
Field Trip 1:
Bethel Projects Women, Steenberg.
|Read lecture 2 and 3 material in preparation for the field trip and responding to the Assignment question.
|Week 4 Lecture: Urban Poverty in South Africa
Session 1: The Nature & Extent of Urban Poverty in South Africa
- Understanding different categories of poverty
- Exploring the poverty profile and impact of poverty in South Africa
- Nature and extent of inequality in SA, and how poverty and inequality is inextricably linked in South Africa
Session 2: Research Proposal Presentations
- Students will present their final research proposals
- Video Clip: Facing Poverty in Cape Town
- Carter M. & May J. (2001). One Kind of Freedom: Poverty Dynamics in Post-apartheid South Africa. World Development, 29 (12) pp.1987-2006.
- Seekings, J (2010). Race, Class and Inequality in the South African City. Centre for Social Science Research (CSSR) Working Paper No. 283.
- UNDP (2014). South Africa: Human Development Index. United Nations Development Programme. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/ZAF.pdf
- Aliber M. (2003). Chronic Poverty in South Africa: Incidence, Causes and Policies. World Development, 31 (3) pp.473-490.
- De Swardt, C. et al (2005). Urban Poverty in Cape Town. Environment and Urbanization, 17 (2), pp. 101-111
- UN-HABITAT (2014). The State of African Cities 2014. Re-imagining Sustainable Urban Transitions. (Note: focus on Southern African cities).
|Week 5 Lecture: Development Theories
Session 1: Explaining Development & Underdevelopment
- Exploring widely cited theories of development, i.e. Dependency Theory, Modernisation Theory and World systems theory
- Considering how these theories try to explain why some nations are poor, i.e. the poverty and inequality between and within nations
- Usefulness of these theories in explaining micro (community level) experiences of poverty
- Matunhu, J (2011). A Critique of Modernization and Dependency Theories in Africa: Critical Assessment. African Journal of History and Culture Vol. 3(5), pp. 65-72.
- Chivaura, V.G. (nd). Hunhu/Ubuntu: A Sustainable Approach to Endogenous Development, Bio-cultural Diversity and Protection of the Environment in Africa. Department of English, Media and Communication Studies, University of Zimbabwe.
|Week 6 Exam
A Closed Book Examination: 1 Hour 30 Minutes
Students will be examined on material covered between Weeks 2 & 8
Students should read all of the material covered between Week 2 and Week 6 in preparation for the exam
|Week 7 Lecture: Development Policy in South Africa
Session 1: Development Policy & Community Development in South Africa
- The post-apartheid South African state’s policy response to poverty and inequality
- Ways in which national policies have repercussions for local development
- Critique of policies and practices of the post-apartheid state
- Challenges the national government (and its local government) faces in its effort to create a better and dignified life for all citizens
- Mogale T.M. (2005). Local governance and poverty reduction in South Africa. Progress in Development Studies, 5 (2), pp.135-143.
- South Africa National Development Plan (2011) http://www.info.gov.za/issues/national-development-plan/
- Winkler T. (2008). When God and Poverty Collide: Exploring the Myths of Faith –sponsored community development. Urban Studies 45(10) 2099-2116
- Carter M. & May J. (1999). Poverty, Livelihood and Class in Rural South Africa. World Development, 27 (1) pp. 1-20
- Sseguya, H., Mazur, R. E., Njuki, J. M., & Owusu, F. Y. (2013). Determinants of participation and leadership in food security groups in Southeast Uganda: Implications for development programs and policies. Journal of Rural and Community Development, 8(1), 77-97.
|Week 8 Lecture: Research Projects
Session 1: Report on Research Projects
- Each research group will present the progress it has made in terms of its research project
Session 2: Sharing Experiences
- Students will share ideas and experiences on their research projects and service learning
|Week 9 Lecture: Principles of Development - Participatory Development
Session 1: Concept of Participation and Collective Agency
- Participatory community development as an elusive concept, principle of development and development approach
- Different forms of community participation as well as pros and cons of different forms of community participation.
- The concept of ‘collective agency’ and own it relates to community development and participatory development.
Session 2: Bottom-up and Top-down Approaches to Community Development
- State-led approaches to development (top-down) vs Community-led (bottom-up (participatory)
- Possibility of middle ground between state-led and community-driven development
- Recapping the concept of community participation, and how it relates to the two development approaches
Session 3: Case Study
- South African case studies that elucidate these aspects of participatory community development.
- Jovchelovitch S. & Campbell C. (2000). Health, Community and development: Towards a social Psychology of Participation. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 10, 255-270.
- Rogers, N. P. (2012). Campus in the Country: Community College Involvement in rural community development. Journal of Rural and Community Development, 7(3), 164-183.
- Gillebo T. (2006). Stakeholder Cooperation in Sustainable Development: Three Case Studies in Norway. Journal of Rural and Community Development, 3, 28-43.
- Hiner C.C. & Galt R.E. (2011). Participation and Capacity Building in Community Visioning: NIMBYism and the Politics of the Rural-Urban Interface in Elk Grove, California. Journal of Rural and Community Development 6, (2), pp. 104–123.
- Besser, T. (2013). Resilient Small Rural Towns and Community Shocks. Journal of Rural and Community Development, 8(1), 117-134.
- Jansen, E.G et al. (2000). Constraints and Opportunities for Community Participation in Lack Victoria Fisheries. Forum For Development Studies, 1-2000, 95-132
- Larrison, C.R. (1999). Comparison of Top-down and Bottom-up Community Development Interventions in Rural Mexico: Practical and Theoretical Implications for Community Development Programs. University of Georgia, United States of America (USA)
- Mitlin, D & Thompson, J (1995). Participatory Approaches in Urban Areas: Strengthening Civil Society or Reinforcing the Status Quo? Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 7, No. 1, PP. 231-250 (Focus mainly on the South African Case Study)
- Landman, K (2010). A Home Close to Opportunities in South Africa: Top Down Vision or Bottom up Demand? Journal Home Vol 56 , pp. 8 - 17
Week 9: Field Trip 2
|Habitat for Humanity, Newlands
Read week 9 lectures in preparation for the field trip.
Principles of Development 2: Sustainable Development
Session 1: Equity & Sustainability
- Concepts and principles of equity and sustainability
- Considering how the two concepts are interlinked
- In-depth look at sustainability, including the environmental sustainability dimension
- Assessing South Africa’s social programmes (particularly the social grants or targeted cash transfer programme) and other projects at NGOs in terms of sustainability.
- Harris, J (2000). Basic Principles of Sustainable Development. Global Development and Environment Institute (G-DAE) Working Paper No. 00-04, Tufts University.
- Lele, S & Jayaraman, T (2011). Equity in the Context of Sustainable Development. Note for UN-GSP Version 2.0
- Potts, R (2012). Social Welfare in South Africa: Curing or Causing Poverty? Penn State Journal of International Affairs, 74 -92
- Laubsche, J (2013). The Sustainability of the South African Welfare State, Sunlam, Published: August 7th, 2013.
- Swilling, M (2005). Rethinking the Sustainability of the South African City. Sustainability Institute, School of Public Management and Planning, University of Stellenbosch
|Field Trip 3
||The Primary Science Project, Philippi
||Read material for Week 9 lectures in preparation for the field trip
Week 11 Lecture:
New Social Movements & Development in South Africa
Session 1: The Rise of New Urban Social Movements South Africa
- Conditions giving rise to new urban social movements in post-apartheid South Africa
- What issues and problems social movements they rally around?
- The role of community-based organisations (CBOs) and urban social movements in development in South Africa
- The nature of state-civil society relations in South Africa
- How the relationship evolved and changed throughout history.
Session 3: Summation of the Course & Preparation for the Symposium
- Introduction to symposium objectives
- Preparation for the symposium presentations (i.e. documentary and oral presentation)
- Allocation of responsibilities among group members
- Bond, P (2004). South Africa’s Resurgent Urban Social Movements The Case of Johannesburg, 1984, 1994, 2004. Paper presented to the School and Centre on 9 June 2004
- Hataya, N (2009). Community-based Local Development and the Peace Initiative of the PDPMM in Colombia: Resource Mobilization Under Extreme Conditions Shigetomi, S & Makino, K ed). Protest and Social Movements in the Developing World, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, UK, pp.19-49.
- De Wet, J (2010). On the Horns of Dilema: Non-profit Organisations’ Relations with the State in Post-apartheid South Africa. Africanus 40 (2) 2010, pp 3-17
- De Wet, J (2012). Friends, Enemies or “Frienemies”: Development and Civil Society Organisations Relations with the State in a Democratic South Africa. Working Papers in Development Sociology and Social Anthropology, No. 370
Symposium: Present your Overall Learning in South Africa, including your Documentary/Video for research and service learning, and any highlights of your life in South Africa.
Submit your research paper and research documentary/video at the IES Office