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Course Information
Discipline(s): 
Political Science
International Relations
Terms offered: 
Fall, Spring
Credits: 
3
Language of instruction: 
English
Prerequisites: 

None

Additional student cost: 

None

Contact Hours: 
45
Description: 

 

*IMPORTANT: This course is an International Affairs & Security Studies (12 for 12 for 12) course. Students on the Metropolitan Studies program can NOT take more than TWO 12 for 12 for 12 courses! This does not include German language courses.

Europe is struggling with the impact of the sovereign debt crisis of the Eurozone, mass migration, external and internal security challenges, as well as political and social needs for reform to mention only some of the most pressing problems. The ongoing project of an ever closer union of European states with currently 28 members of the European Union started with the promise to provide peace, stability and prosperity. This narrative attracted new members in five enlargement rounds since the 1970s while today Eurosceptic parties, nationalist movements as well as internal and external critics of the EU question the European integration project as such. The course analyses challenges Europe as a whole and the EU in particular is confronted with. We study the various impacts, how the EU and its members respond and if the opportunities of these crises are constructively used for reform – or wasted (Crisis = Danger + Opportunity).  We will analyze institutions, interests and competing narratives to explain the current situation in Europe and discuss alternatives.

The course will follow ongoing debates within and outside of the EU. It includes global reflections on the state European situation and it makes comparisons with responses to similar challenges in other parts of the world. Students will have numerous opportunities to meet with experts, politicians, scholars and political analysts in course related events in the German capital.

Please note that this course is pending a Spring 2016 Review by the Curriulum committee. 

Learning outcomes: 

By the end of the course students will be able to

  • Understand discourses on crises in Europe and its periphery.
  • Understand how the European system of governance is dealing with multiple challenges.
  • Understand the different dimensions of current crises.
  • Apply the methods of research and inquiry from social science, different schools of thought in international relations and integration theory to the study of human behavior in the European Union system of multi-level governance.
  • Understand and evaluate historical and social causes and effects of current crises in the EU, as well as the responses and different attitudes of founding members, new members and candidate countries.
  • Analyze the impact of the crises on European integration as well as on states, societies, markets and EU citizens.
  • Critically evaluate primary – including course related events like panel discussions and speeches in the German capital and during the Will trip - and secondary source materials, and use both to explain social and historical developments of European integration.
Method of presentation: 

Lectures, excursions, conferences, guest lectures, student presentations and discussion in class. Moodle will be used to enhance students' learning experiences.

Required work and form of assessment: 
  • Midterm examination: book review - 25%
  • Event Review Assignment (1.500 words) - 15%
  • Final Exam (research paper 8-10 pages) - 30%
  • Presentation (15 minutes in class presentation) - 15%
  • Participation in Class Discussion - 15%
content: 

Week

Content

Assignments/Readings

Week 1: Introduction

1. Introduction, Presentation of the Course, First Steps

  • Who are we and what do we study?
  • Why did we come to Berlin and what are our expectations?
  • What are the goals of the course?
  • How is the course structured and are there topics that should be added?
  • How do make use of Berlin as a resource?
  • What are the course requirements?
  • How do we communicate?

2. What Crises in Europe? 

We start the course with a discussion of basic questions like “What is Europe?”, “What is a crisis?” and how to study both.

Readings:

  • Saurugger, Sabine 2014: Europeanisation in Times of Crisis, in: Political Studies Review, Volume 12, Number 2, 1 May 2014, pp. 181-192(12)
  • Tosun, Jale / Wetzel, Anne / Zapryanova, Galina 2014: The EU in Crisis: Advancing the Debate in: Journal of European Integration, Volume 36, Number 3, 16 April 2014, pp. 195-211(17)
  • Bitzenis, Aristidis, et al. (Ed.) 2015: Europe in Crisis: Problems, Challenges, and Alternative Perspectives. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, pp.1-30 (30)
  • Ioannou, Demosthenes / Leblond, Patrick / Niemann, Arne 2015: European integration and the crisis: practice and theory, in: Journal of European Public Policy, 22:2, pp.155-176 (21)

Assignments 

  • Interviewing classmates in order to know each other.
  • Asking and giving the motivations to study in Berlin.

Week 2

3. Basics:

A History of European Crises since 1945

Decision-making in the EU: Member States and EU Institutions 

Setting the stage: Challenges for the EU in 2017?

EU integration can be described as a chain of crises:

  • What are the main stops and gos of European integration until today? 
  • What are the main approaches to explain European integration and its driving forces?
  • What challenges is the EU facing in 2017?

 

4. Markets, Money and Integration

  • What does capitalism have to do with the current crises?
  • What are possible steps of economic integration?
  • What are potential gains and costs of different levels of economic integration?
  • What are the effects of the Single European Market for companies, consumes, societies and states?
  • What shortcomings still exist in the current architecture of the European Economic and Monetary Union?

Readings: 

  • Spaak, Paul-Henri. 1950. The Integration of Europe: Dreams and Realities, in: Foreign Affairs 29:1, pp. 94-100.
  • Gilbert, Mark 2008: Narrating the Process: Questioning the Progressive Story of European Integration, in: Journal of Common Market Studies, 46:3, 641-662.
  • McCormick, Patrick 2010: The idea of Europe, Oxford University Press, 15p.
  • Mattli, Walter / Stone Sweet, Alec 2014: Regional Integration and the Evolution of the European
  • Polity: On the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Journal of Common Market Studies, in: Journal of Common Market Studies, 50:S1, pp.1-17
  • Bailer, Stefanie 2010: What factors determine bargaining power and success in EU negotiations?, in: Journal of European Public Policy, 17:5, pp 743 - 757
  • In brief: Europe in 12 Lessons http://europa.eu/abc/12lessons/index_en.htm
  • Lehndorff, Steffen 2012: Introduction in: A triumph of failed ideas, European models of capitalism in crisis, ETUI Brussels, pp. 7-28
  • Inotai, Andras 2012: Winners and losers of the new European Economic Governance, Budapest
  • Bolukbasi, H. Tolga 2009: On consensus, constraint and choice: economic and monetary integration and Europe's welfare states, in: Journal of European Public Policy, 16:4, June, pp. 527-544
  • Konrad Adenauer Foundation 2013: Europe`s Single Market – Exploiting Untapped Potential, St. Augustin, 44 pp.

Assignments:

  • Discussing different definitions of challenges and their assumptions
  • Discussion of the perception of the official perception of globalization in the EU

Week 3

5. Crisis in the Eurozone

  • What caused the crisis in the Eurozone?
  • What have been the responses and effects?
  • How can this be explained and why do explanations differ within the EU and also from an external perspective?

 

6. Social dimension of the crisis

The crisis in the Eurozone has not only financial implications, it also shows social and political repercussions that we describe, explain and discuss in this session.

Readings: 

  • Patrick Leblond 2012: "One for all and all for one: The global financial crisis and the European
  • integration project", in Lorenzo Fioramonti, ed.,Regions and Crises: New Challenges for
  • Contemporary Regionalisms, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 50-66 (16)
  • The Economist 2011: A very short history of the crisis, November 11, 3p
  • http://www.economist.com/node/21536871/print
  • Georg Menz and Mitchell Smith 2013: Kicking the Can Down the Road to More Europe?
  • Salvaging the Euro and the Future of European Economic Governance, in: Journal of European Integration, Vol. 35, 3, pp. 195-206 (11)
  • Kenneth Dyson 2013: „Sworn to Grim Necessity? Imperfections of European Economic
  • Governance, Normative Political Theory, and Supreme Emergency, in: Journal of European
  • Integration, Vol. 35, 3, pp. 207-222 (15)
  • Dølvik, Jon Erik (Ed.) 2015: European Social Models from Crisis to Crisis: Employment and Inequality in the Era of Monetary Integration. Oxford: Oxford University Press (selected readings).
  • Heins, Elke, and Caroline De La Porte 2015: "The Sovereign Debt Crisis, the EU and Welfare State Reform." Comparative European Politics, 13.1 (2015): 1-7 (7)
  • Leschke, Janine / Jepsen, Maria 2012: Introduction: Crisis, policy responses and widening inequalities in the EU, in: International Labour Review, Volume 151, Number 4, 1 December, pp. 289-312 (24)
  • Lehndorff, Steffen 2012: Introduction in: A triumph of failed ideas, European models of capitalism in crisis, ETUI Brussels (selected readings)
  • Fadda, Sebastiano and Tridico, Pasquale (Eds.). The Economic Crisis in Social and Institutional Context: Theories, Policies and Exit Strategies. London; New York, NY : Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2015.
  • Dolvik, Jon Erik / Martin, Andrew 2012: European Social Models from Crisis to Crisis, Employment and Income in the Era of Monetary Integration, Oxford University Press, 21p
  • Schraad-Tischler, Daniel / Kroll Christian 2014:  Social Justice in the EU – A Cross-national Comparison, Social Inclusion Monitor Europe (SIM) – Index Report, Bertelsmann Foundation, Gütersloh, 114pp.
     

Assignments:

  • Presentation and discussion of key reasons for the crisis and comparison with the US case
  • Discussion if and how the EU could be seen as a driving force for social problems and solutions

Week 4

7. Crisis and periphery

The financial crisis since 2008 appeared in the EU in various forms. Although every EU member has its own story to tell, there are significant differences between the situation in the geographical core and the periphery of the continent.

As a preparation of the Will Trip we look at the special case study of Greece and Germany.

 

8. Excursion to a course related event or guest lecture

Readings:

  • Pagoulatos, George and Quaglia, Lucia 2013: “Turning the Crisis on its Head: Sovereign Debt Crisis as Banking Crisis in Italy and Greece.’’ In: Market-Based Banking and the International Financial Crisis. Oxford: Oxford University Press, (22)
  • Karasavvoglou, Anastasios G, (Ed.) 2015: EU Crisis and the Role of the Periphery. Cham: Springer, pp.1-23 (22)
  • Blyth, Mark 2015: A Pain in the Athens, Why Greece is not to blame for the crisis, in: Greece Finance, July 7, 3p
  • Winecroft, Kindred 2015: Why Piketty is Wrong about Debt Forgiveness, in: Ducks of Minerva, July 6, 4p

Assignments:

  • Presentation of the history of European economic geography, differences between core and periphery and the EU response to it.

Week 5

Midterms

Assignments:

  • Book review

Week 6

9 Media analysis: The crisis of the day – What is presented in European media in that week as a crisis and what do we learn from it

Assignments:

  • Analysis of the portal Eurotopics

Week 7

Mid-term review: what did we learn? What should be added to the program?

10. Crises and Germany

  • How has the crisis story been told and how could the narrative be explained?
  • How do citizens and EU experts see the future of their country in the EU?
  • What are the particular costs of benefits?
  • What is Germany’s role in the EU? How is the country perceived by others and what is the German self-perception as an EU member state?

Readings:

  • Schwan, Gesine 2015: Entreißt den Technokraten die Herrschaft über Europa, Manifest in Die ZEiT, 1.10. (translated version)
  • http://pdf.zeit.de/politik/ausland/2015-09/europaeische-union-eu-manifes...
  • Ash, Timothy Garton 2013: The new German question, in: The New York Review of Books, August 15, 10p.
  • Sikorski, Radoslaw 2011: Poland and the future of the European Union, Berlin speech, 28.11., 11p.
  • The Economist 2013: Special Report: Germany, Europe´s reluctant hegemon, June 15, 10p.
  • Swieboda, Pawel 2013: Towards a Post-German Europe, in: Demos Europe, May 22, 10p.

Assignments:

  • Presentation with discussion

Week 8

11. Crisis and migration I

  • What causes global and European migration crises?
  • What happened in Europe in 2015, how did the EU and the member states respond?

 

12. Crisis and migration II

  • What is the impact of migration on societies, social systems and markets?
  • What is the impact on policies like integration, development and labour in the EU?

Readings: 

  • Lindley, Anna (ed.) 2014: Crisis and migration: critical perspectives, Routledge, 2014 (selected readings)
  • Ghosh, Bimal 2013: The global economic crisis and the future of migration : issues and prospects : what will migration look like in 2045, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan (selected readings)
  • Bevelander, Pieter (ed.) 2014: Crisis and migration: implications of the Eurozone for perceptions, politics, and policies of migration, Lund, Nordic Academic Press
  • Henry, Giulia / Pastore, Ferruccio 2014: The Governance of Migration, Mobility and Asylum in the EU: A Contentious Laboratory, in: Tocci, Natalie (Ed.): Towards a more united and effective EU, Rome,  pp.163-197
  • Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge (ed.) 2015: Impact of migration on Germany, Forthcoming

Assignments:

  • Presentation and discussion
  • Presentation and discussion

Week 9

13. EU relations with Turkey – Reliable partner, security provider or part of the problem?

For a discussion of EU Turkey relations and its impact on the Wider Middle East read

 

14. Excursion to a think tank or a Turkish university in Berlin

Readings:

  • Alessandri, Emiliano / Benli Altunişik, Meliha (2013): Unfinished Transitions: Challenges and Opportunities of the EU's and Turkey's Responses to the "Arab Spring”, GTE Working Paper No. 4, January, Pages 11
  • Cicala, Alba (2013): “Friend Request Sent”: EU Identity and Turkey’s Accession Bid, in: Papakostas, Nikos / Pasamitros, Nikos (Eds.) (2013): Unraveling Turkey – Collective Volume on Contemporary Turkish Politics and Society, Inter Alia, Volume 1, Athens, 25 Pages
  • http://www.interaliaproject.com/CV1.1.pdf

Assignments:

  • Presentation with discussion
  • Discussion with an analyst

Week 10

 

15. Crisis in the Middle-East: The complexity of a multi-dimensional conflict and how it affects Europe

Assignments:

  • Presentation and discussion of the situation in the Middle East

Week 11

Break

 

Week 12

16.  Crisis and Security

  • What is the role of the EU in security and defence?
  • What are the interests of different member states in the policy field?
  • What is the relationship with NATO?
  • Do crises help to unite as an exogenous shock?

 

17. European governance and democratic questions

  • Is there a legitimacy problem on a national and subnational level?
  • Does the EU meet its own democratic standards?

Readings:

  • Mix, Derek E. 2013: The European Union: Foreign and Security Policy, Congressional Research Service, Washington D.C., Report 7-5700, April, 29p.
  • Howorth, Jolyon 2014: European Security Post-Libya and Post-Ukraine: In Search of Core Leadership, in Tocci, Natalie (Ed.): Towards a more united and effective EU, Rome, pp. 133-162
  • Techau, Jan 2013: Will Europeans Ever Agree on the Use of Military Force?, in: Notre Europe, Policy Paper 65, February, 6p.
  • Poguntke, Thomas, et al., (Eds.) 2015: Citizenship and Democracy in an Era of Crisis: Essays in Honour of Jan W. van Deth. Abingdon, Oxon; New York, NY: Routledge, Selected readings
  • Demetriou, Kyriakos N. (Ed.) 2015: The European Union in Crisis: Explorations in Representation and Democratic Legitimacy. Cham: Springer. Selected readings
  • Longo, Michael / Murray, Philomena 2015: Europe's Legitimacy Crisis: From Causes to Solutions. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire; New York: Palgrave Macmillan, selected readings
  • Crouch, Colin. 2015: Governing Social Risks in Post-Crisis Europe. Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, selected readings

Assignments:

  • Presentation and discussion

Week 13

18. What future for Europe?

  • What are future scenarios for the future of the EU?
  • What needs to be reformed?
  • What will be the consequences of reform proposals for the EU, its members, citizens and the global politics?

 

19. Final discussion / Oral evaluation / Presentation of the outlines of the final papers

Readings:

Week 14

20. Finals week / Final papers are due 

 

 

Required readings: 
  • Saurugger, Sabine 2014: Europeanisation in Times of Crisis, in: Political Studies Review, Volume 12, Number 2, 1 May 2014, pp. 181-192(12)
  • Tosun, Jale / Wetzel, Anne / Zapryanova, Galina 2014: The EU in Crisis: Advancing the Debate in: Journal of European Integration, Volume 36, Number 3, 16 April 2014, pp. 195-211(17)
  • Bitzenis, Aristidis, et al. (Ed.) 2015: Europe in Crisis: Problems, Challenges, and Alternative Perspectives. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, pp.1-30 (30)
  • Ioannou, Demosthenes / Leblond, Patrick / Niemann, Arne 2015: European integration and the crisis: practice and theory, in: Journal of European Public Policy, 22:2, pp.155-176 (21)
  • Spaak, Paul-Henri. 1950. The Integration of Europe: Dreams and Realities, in: Foreign Affairs 29:1, pp. 94-100.
  • Gilbert, Mark 2008: Narrating the Process: Questioning the Progressive Story of European Integration, in: Journal of Common Market Studies, 46:3, 641-662.
  • McCormick, Patrick 2010: The idea of Europe, Oxford University Press, 15p.
  • Mattli, Walter / Stone Sweet, Alec 2014: Regional Integration and the Evolution of the European
  • Polity: On the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Journal of Common Market Studies, in: Journal of Common Market Studies, 50:S1, pp.1-17
  • Bailer, Stefanie 2010: What factors determine bargaining power and success in EU negotiations?, in: Journal of European Public Policy, 17:5, pp 743 - 757
  • In brief: Europe in 12 Lessons http://europa.eu/abc/12lessons/index_en.htm
  • Lehndorff, Steffen 2012: Introduction in: A triumph of failed ideas, European models of capitalism in crisis, ETUI Brussels, pp. 7-28
  • Inotai, Andras 2012: Winners and losers of the new European Economic Governance, Budapest
  • Bolukbasi, H. Tolga 2009: On consensus, constraint and choice: economic and monetary integration and Europe's welfare states, in: Journal of European Public Policy, 16:4, June, pp. 527-544
  • Konrad Adenauer Foundation 2013: Europe`s Single Market – Exploiting Untapped Potential, St. Augustin, 44 pp.
  • Patrick Leblond 2012: "One for all and all for one: The global financial crisis and the European
  • integration project", in Lorenzo Fioramonti, ed.,Regions and Crises: New Challenges for
  • Contemporary Regionalisms, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 50-66 (16)
  • The Economist 2011: A very short history of the crisis, November 11, 3p
  • http://www.economist.com/node/21536871/print
  • Georg Menz and Mitchell Smith 2013: Kicking the Can Down the Road to More Europe?
  • Salvaging the Euro and the Future of European Economic Governance, in: Journal of European Integration, Vol. 35, 3, pp. 195-206 (11)
  • Kenneth Dyson 2013: „Sworn to Grim Necessity? Imperfections of European Economic
  • Governance, Normative Political Theory, and Supreme Emergency, in: Journal of European
  • Integration, Vol. 35, 3, pp. 207-222 (15)
  • Dølvik, Jon Erik (Ed.) 2015: European Social Models from Crisis to Crisis: Employment and Inequality in the Era of Monetary Integration. Oxford: Oxford University Press (selected readings).
  • Heins, Elke, and Caroline De La Porte 2015: "The Sovereign Debt Crisis, the EU and Welfare State Reform." Comparative European Politics, 13.1 (2015): 1-7 (7)
  • Leschke, Janine / Jepsen, Maria 2012: Introduction: Crisis, policy responses and widening inequalities in the EU, in: International Labour Review, Volume 151, Number 4, 1 December, pp. 289-312 (24)
  • Lehndorff, Steffen 2012: Introduction in: A triumph of failed ideas, European models of capitalism in crisis, ETUI Brussels (selected readings)
  • Fadda, Sebastiano and Tridico, Pasquale (Eds.). The Economic Crisis in Social and Institutional Context: Theories, Policies and Exit Strategies. London; New York, NY : Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2015.
  • Dolvik, Jon Erik / Martin, Andrew 2012: European Social Models from Crisis to Crisis, Employment and Income in the Era of Monetary Integration, Oxford University Press, 21p
  • Schraad-Tischler, Daniel / Kroll Christian 2014:  Social Justice in the EU – A Cross-national Comparison, Social Inclusion Monitor Europe (SIM) – Index Report, Bertelsmann Foundation, Gütersloh, 114pp.
  • Pagoulatos, George and Quaglia, Lucia 2013: “Turning the Crisis on its Head: Sovereign Debt Crisis as Banking Crisis in Italy and Greece.’’ In: Market-Based Banking and the International Financial Crisis. Oxford: Oxford University Press, (22)
  • Karasavvoglou, Anastasios G, (Ed.) 2015: EU Crisis and the Role of the Periphery. Cham: Springer, pp.1-23 (22)
  • Blyth, Mark 2015: A Pain in the Athens, Why Greece is not to blame for the crisis, in: Greece Finance, July 7, 3p
  • Winecroft, Kindred 2015: Why Piketty is Wrong about Debt Forgiveness, in: Ducks of Minerva, July 6, 4p
  • Schwan, Gesine 2015: Entreißt den Technokraten die Herrschaft über Europa, Manifest in Die ZEiT, 1.10. (translated version)
  • http://pdf.zeit.de/politik/ausland/2015-09/europaeische-union-eu-manifes...
  • Ash, Timothy Garton 2013: The new German question, in: The New York Review of Books, August 15, 10p.
  • Sikorski, Radoslaw 2011: Poland and the future of the European Union, Berlin speech, 28.11., 11p.
  • The Economist 2013: Special Report: Germany, Europe´s reluctant hegemon, June 15, 10p.
  • Swieboda, Pawel 2013: Towards a Post-German Europe, in: Demos Europe, May 22, 10p.
  • Lindley, Anna (ed.) 2014: Crisis and migration: critical perspectives, Routledge, 2014 (selected readings)
  • Ghosh, Bimal 2013: The global economic crisis and the future of migration : issues and prospects : what will migration look like in 2045, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan (selected readings)
  • Bevelander, Pieter (ed.) 2014: Crisis and migration: implications of the Eurozone for perceptions, politics, and policies of migration, Lund, Nordic Academic Press
  • Henry, Giulia / Pastore, Ferruccio 2014: The Governance of Migration, Mobility and Asylum in the EU: A Contentious Laboratory, in: Tocci, Natalie (Ed.): Towards a more united and effective EU, Rome,  pp.163-197
  • Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge (ed.) 2015: Impact of migration on Germany, Forthcoming
  • Alessandri, Emiliano / Benli Altunişik, Meliha (2013): Unfinished Transitions: Challenges and Opportunities of the EU's and Turkey's Responses to the "Arab Spring”, GTE Working Paper No. 4, January, Pages 11
  • Cicala, Alba (2013): “Friend Request Sent”: EU Identity and Turkey’s Accession Bid, in: Papakostas, Nikos / Pasamitros, Nikos (Eds.) (2013): Unraveling Turkey – Collective Volume on Contemporary Turkish Politics and Society, Inter Alia, Volume 1, Athens, 25 Pages
  • http://www.interaliaproject.com/CV1.1.pdf
  • Mix, Derek E. 2013: The European Union: Foreign and Security Policy, Congressional Research Service, Washington D.C., Report 7-5700, April, 29p.
  • Howorth, Jolyon 2014: European Security Post-Libya and Post-Ukraine: In Search of Core Leadership, in Tocci, Natalie (Ed.): Towards a more united and effective EU, Rome, pp. 133-162
  • Techau, Jan 2013: Will Europeans Ever Agree on the Use of Military Force?, in: Notre Europe, Policy Paper 65, February, 6p.
  • Poguntke, Thomas, et al., (Eds.) 2015: Citizenship and Democracy in an Era of Crisis: Essays in Honour of Jan W. van Deth. Abingdon, Oxon; New York, NY: Routledge, Selected readings
  • Demetriou, Kyriakos N. (Ed.) 2015: The European Union in Crisis: Explorations in Representation and Democratic Legitimacy. Cham: Springer. Selected readings
  • Longo, Michael / Murray, Philomena 2015: Europe's Legitimacy Crisis: From Causes to Solutions. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire; New York: Palgrave Macmillan, selected readings
  • Crouch, Colin. 2015: Governing Social Risks in Post-Crisis Europe. Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, selected readings
  • Chopin, Thierry 2014: Reforming the European Union: Which methods? Which options?, Policy Paper, Robert Schuman Foundation, Paris, July, 9pp.
  • Heinrich Böll Foundation 2011: Solidarity and Strength – The Future of the European Union, Berlin, 24pp.
  • Group on the Future of the EU 2030 (2010): PROJECT EUROPE 2030: Challenges and Opportunities. A report to the European Council by the Reflection, May, 
  • http://www.reflectiongroup.eu/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/reflection_en_w...
  • Unofficial Slides presenting the report:
  • http://www.reflectiongroup.eu/2010/05/31/unofficial-slides-presenting-th... 46pp.