From the modern European cities of Madrid and Barcelona, to the medieval university of Salamanca and the Moorish flavor of Granada, Spain and Spanish culture is far from easy to define. Its extensive Atlantic and Mediterranean coastline has made it one of Europe's most popular tourist destinations.

Beyond the veneer of tourism, however, Spain is a country with a long and complicated history of Roman, Catholic, Jewish, and Arab influences. This mix has produced stunning and varied architecture, a strong tradition of academic scholarship, some of the 20th century's most influential artists, and a complex sense of modern national identity.