Discipline(s): 
Political Science
Terms offered: 
Fall, Spring, Summer
Credits: 
3
Language of instruction: 
English
Contact Hours: 
45
Description: 

Spain in the last hundred years has been a scenario for virtually every single form of government possible: it transformed itself from Empire into State, provided new roles to old institutions such as the monarchy, struggled between democracy and dictatorship, and even between different ideas of what democracy is, experienced civil war, juggled with threats of regional secession, experimented with different forms of territorial organization, and to crown it all, it entered the supranational arena by becoming a member of the European Union. This course provides an introduction to Spanish politics from a historical and comparative perspective. It analyzes the institutional organization of Spain, focusing on the interplay between historical processes and institutional settings. It is designed to introduce students into the comparative analysis of political systems by using Spain as a case study, in addition to providing them with the key elements of the Spanish political “rules of the game” in order to be able to assess the causes and consequences of political institutions and processes.

Prerequisites: 

One prior course in one or more of the following disciplines: Political Science, Social
Science, History.

Attendance policy: 

Attendanceis mandatory for all IES classes, including field studies. Any exams, tests, presentations, or other work missed due to student absences can only be rescheduled in cases of documented medical or family emergencies. If a student misses more than three classes in any course half a letter grade will be deducted from the final grade for every additional absence. Seven absences in any course will result in a failing grade.

Learning outcomes: 

By the end of the course, students are able to:
• identify the relevant actors that have shaped political processes at different stages, as well as the interplay between their interests, opportunities and constraints they face;
•    evaluate the role of different institutional settings in shaping the choices that politicians make;
• compare the  effectiveness and  stability  of  different  political  systems and  alternative forms  of organizing a democracy;
•    analyze the historical evolution of political ideals and their correspondence with particular types of
institutions;
• assess the impact of political processes on political institutions, and how in turn institutions shape political processes;
•    attain critical analysis skills on issues of institutional design.

Method of presentation: 

• FIELD STUDIES: These are classes on site. It involves visits to museums, visits to relevant institutions, and guided tours to specific historically relevant sites. Field studies provide students the opportunity to deepen their knowledge on certain issues beyond the scope of class materials and on the historical
significance of some of the most prominent sites in the city they live in, as well as a visual image of the processes covered in class.
• LECTURES: Lectures provide the theoretical and historical background to the course’s contents. It explores the debates, theories and events which surround the readings and other class materials. It
clarifies and systematizes concepts that are necessary to understand events and institutions in a larger framework.
•    CLASS DISCUSSION: Class discussions facilitate the students’ ability to analyze course materials, apply
concepts,  compare  events,  and  express  their  analytical  views  on  the  theories  and  processes discussed in the course.
• STUDENT PRESENTATION: Each student will make a presentation based on the readings of a particular class. This further allows the student to actively engage with the materials, as well as expand and go
beyond the scope of the class on at least one of the issues covered in the course.
• READER: The reader is the fundamental source of information for students. It includes a selection of key academic readings, which will introduce the students into the processes, concepts, and events
discussed in class. The chosen with the aim of providing a general understanding of the subject matter.

LANGUAGE OF PRESENTATION: English

Required work and form of assessment: 

Class participation (10%); oral presentation (30%);
mid-term exam (30%); final exam (30%).

• PARTICIPATION: Students are expected to prepare the assigned readings before class, and take an active role in discussing the issues discussed in each session. Attendance is therefore mandatory.
•    STUDENT PRESENTATION: Each student will make one presentation based on the readings discussed in
the course. This further allows the student to actively engage with the materials, as well as expand and go beyond the scope of the class on at least one of the issues covered in the course.
•    EXAMS: There will be an in-class mid-term and final exam.

content: 

Session 1: Introduction

Session 2: From Empire to Statehood. Overview of Spanish history, from the formation of the Spanish Empire to the 20th century.
Required Reading:      
Moreno, L. (2001). “The Development of the
Spanish National State”. The federalization of
Spain. London; Frank Cass, pp. 36-77.
 

Session 3: Spain under the dictatorship and the early transition to democracy. Analyzes the
political organization of, and the internal contradictions within, the late Franco dictatorship. The class will also explore the events and political reforms which took place during the early stages
of the transition to democracy.
Required Reading:
Preston, P. (1996) The Triumph of Democracy in Spain, Routledge pp. 1-53.

Session 4: The 1978 Constitution and Beyond. This class explores the nature and organization of
the Spanish Constitution of 1978. In particular, it will focus on the processes and problems incurred in maintaining a peaceful transition to democracy, including the debates over territorial organization,
monarchy versus republic and the role of Church/State relations.
Required Reading:     
  Heywood, P. (1995) Politics and Government of Spain. Macmillan, Basingstoke. pp. 37-57. 
 Preston, P. (1996) The Triumph of Democracy in Spain. Routledge, London, pp. 122-159.

Session 5: The Transition to Democracy as National Reconciliation. Analysis of the conditions and choices that facilitated the success of the Spanish transition to democracy. In particular, the class focuses on the ‘pacto del olvido’, the implicit agreement between the outgoing Francoist authorities and opposition elites to avoid war crimes and investigations of the past in return for
a peaceful transition to democracy.
Required Reading:    
  Aguilar, P. (1997) “Collective Memory of the Spanish Civil War: the Case of the Political Amnesty in the Spanish Transition to Democracy”, Democratization, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 88-109.

Session 6: Governance at the Centre. This class explores the contrast between parliamentarism
and presidentialism as methods of governance, and investigates in depth the ‘quasi-presidential’ system used in Spain.
Required Reading:
Linz, L. (1990) “The Perils of Presidentialism”
Journal of Democracy, Winter 1990, pp. 51-69.

Session 7: Federalism in Spain. Analysis of the use of federalism to assuage divided societies, focusing in particular on the implementation and development of a quasi-federal system in Spain known as the estado de las autonom?as.
Required Reading:
Stepan, A. (1999) “Federalism and Democracy: Beyond the U.S. Model”, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 19-34.

Session 8: The Judiciary and the ‘State of Law’. This class will discuss the institutional development of the judiciary in Spain. It will pay particular attention to the role of the judiciary as a counter-balance to parliamentary and legislative powers, as well as its recent role in international legal controversies (e.g. the Pinochet case).   
Required Reading:   
   Toharia, J. J. (2003) “The Organization, Functioning, and Evaluation of the Spanish
Judicial System, 1975-2000: A Case Study in Legal Culture” in L. M. Friedman and R. P?rez- Perdomo (eds.), Legal culture in the age of globalization: Latin America and Latin Europe. Stanford, Stanford University Press, pp. 377-412.

Session 9: Modern Political Parties in Spain. Analysis of the development, organization and ideologies of the two main statewide parties, with particular focus on their development over the past decade during the Aznar and Zapatero premierships (1996 – present).    
 Required Reading:  
  Balfour, S. (2005) “The reinvention of Spanish conservatism: the Partido Popular since
1989”, in The Politics of Contemporary Spain, S. Balfour (Ed.), Routledge, London, pp. 146-68.
M?ndez, M. (2005) “The Socialist Party in government and in opposition”, in The Politics of Contemporary Spain, S. Balfour (Ed.), Routledge, London, pp. 169-197.

Session 10: Field study TBA 

Session 11:  Electoral Competition in  Spain (I). This class will focus on the institutional incentives embedded in the Spanish electoral system, which have favored some parties over others, and have led to the proliferation of regionally based parties in  different  parts  of  the  country. It  further discusses the  consequences of  this  institutional setting for the Spanish political system overall. Required readings:  
Colomer J.M. (2005) “It’s Parties that Choose Electoral Systems (or Duverger’s Laws Upside Down)”, pp. 1–21.
Hamann K. (1999) “Federalist Institutions, voting behaviour and party systems”, in Publius: Journal of Federalism, Vol. 29, Num. 1, pp. 111-137.

Session 12: Electoral Competition in Spain (II). Analysis  of  the  general  elections  of  2004  and
2008. The class will survey the last two general elections, paying particular attention to the 2004
elections, which were held in the aftermath of the worst terrorist attack in Europe in recent times and  clouded  in  extreme  controversy.  It  will explore the degree to which the terrorist attacks led to a change in voter intentions and participation, and the issue of manipulation both by the government and the opposition.
Required Reading:
Colomer, J. (2004) “The General Election of Spain”, Electoral Studies, vol. 24, no. 1, pp.
149-156.

Session 13: MIDTERM EXAM 

Session 14: Spanish Economy in Historical and Contemporary Perspective. Analysis of the development of the Spanish political economy, from autarky to European integration and monetary union.
Required Reading:
Boix, C. (2000), ‘Managing the Spanish Economy within Europe’, South European Society and Politics vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 165-190.
 

Session 15: The Policy Process. Particular attention will be paid to the social pacts which characterized the early transition period, and compare those processes with the functioning of the policy process in modern times. It will explore the question as to whether consociationalism was an institutionalized form of policy-making, or whether in fact this was a contingent process which took place in the context of the transition to democracy.
Required Reading:
Heywood, P. (1998) “Power diffusion or concentration? In search of the Spanish policy process” West European Politics, Vol.  21, No. 4, pp. 103–123

Session 16: Spain and the Wider World. This class will    explore    traditional    and    contemporary
traditions in Spanish foreign policy.  The class will focus on the transition of Spain’s foreign policy posture   from   dictatorship   to   democracy, its adaptation to entry into the European Community, as well as paying particular attention to modern foreign policy under Aznar and Zapatero.
Required Reading:
Magone, J. (2004) Contemporary Spanish Politics. Routledge, London. pp. 210 – 231.

Session 17: Field Trip TBA 

Session 18: Spain and Europe. Analysis of the development of relations between Spain and
Europe, paying particular attention to the degree to which Spanish government institutions have become ‘Europeanized’ by membership in the European Union, and to what degree Spain has influenced EU policy.     
Required Reading:   
     Closa, C. and Heywood, P. (2004) Spain and the European Union, Palgrave, Basingstoke. pp. 6-
30.
Farrell, M. (2005) “Spain in the new European Union: in search of a new role and identity”, in S. Balfour (ed.) The Politics of Contemporary Spain. Routledge, London. pp. 215-232.

Session 19: Civil Society and Democratic Consolidation in Spain. The class will focus on the role of civil society in the consolidation of democracy in Spain. In addition, attention will be paid to contemporary social cleavages and political strategies towards exploiting those cleavages
Required Reading:
Encarnaci?n, O. (2001) “Civil Society and the Consolidation of Democracy in Spain”, Political Science Quarterly, vol. 116, pp. 53-79.

Session 20: Political Corruption in Spain. Explores structural factors, incentives and opportunity
structures for political corruption in Spain’s contemporary democracy.    
Required Reading:  
   Heywood, P. (2005) “Corruption, democracy and governance in Spain” in The Politics of Contemporary Spain, S. Balfour (Ed.), Routledge, London. pp 40-57

Session 21: Terrorism in Spain. This class uses the Basque Country as a case study to explore the effects of terrorism on democracy.   It pays particular attention to the terrorist group ETA, its development and current organization and importance.  It will also deal with state responses to terrorism, electoral manipulation and intimidation, freedom of speech and the press.  
Required Reading:
   Woodworth, P. (2005) “Using terror against terrorists: the Spanish experience”, in The Politics of Contemporary Spain, S. Balfour (Ed.), Routledge, London.pp. 61-80.
Mata, J.M. “Terrorism and nationalist conflict: the weakness of democracy in the Basque Country”, in The Politics of Contemporary Spain, S. Balfour (Ed.), Routledge, London., pp. 81-105.

Session 22: terrorism in Spain II. The class will continue exploring the social and political effects
of ETA terrorism in the Spanish society.
Documentary viewing and debate.
Required Reading:
Partial Documentary viewing: “La pelota Vasca” (2003). Julio Medem.

Session 23: The Media and Politics in Spain. This class will analyze the development of the Spanish media from dictatorship to democracy. The class will pay close to the contemporary relationship between politics and the media, in particular how the media affects elite political positions as well as electoral behavior
Required Reading:
Gunther, R. et al (1999) “The media and Politics in Spain: from dictatorship to democracy” pp. 1-33

Session 24: Review Session 

Final Exam 

 

Required readings: 

Aguilar, P. (1997) “Collective Memory of the Spanish Civil War: the Case of the Political Amnesty in the
Spanish Transition to Democracy”, Democratization, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 88-109.
 

Balfour, S. (2005) “The reinvention of Spanish conservatism: the Partido Popular since 1989”, in The
Politics of Contemporary Spain, S. Balfour (Ed.), Routledge, London, pp. 146-68.
 

Boix, C. (2000), ‘Managing the Spanish Economy within Europe’, South European Society and Politics
vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 165-190.
 

Colomer, J. (2004) “The General Election of Spain”, Electoral Studies, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 149-156.

Colomer J.M. (2005) “It’s Parties that Choose Electoral Systems (or Duverger’s Laws Upside Down)”, pp. 1–21.
 

Closa, C. and Heywood, P. (2004) Spain and the European Union. Palgrave, Basingstoke. pp 6-30.

Encarnaci?n, O. (2001) “Civil Society and the Consolidation of Democracy in Spain”, Political Science
Quarterly, vol. 116, pp. 53-79.
 

Farrell, M. (2005) “Spain in the new European Union: in search of a new role and identity”, in S. Balfour
(ed.) The Politics of Contemporary Spain. Routledge, London. pp. 215-232
 

Gunther, R. et al (1999) “The media and Politics in Spain: from dictatorship to democracy” pp.1-33
 

Hamann K. (1999) “Federalist Institutions, voting behaviour and party systems”, in Publius: Journal of
Federalism, Vol. 29, Num. 1, pp. 111-137.
 

Heywood, P. (1995) Politics and Government of Spain. Macmillan, Basingstoke. pp 37-57.
 

Heywood, P. (1998) “Power diffusion or concentration? In search of the Spanish policy process” West
European Politics, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 103–123.
 

Heywood, P. (2005) “Corruption, democracy and governance in Spain” in The Politics of Contemporary
Spain, S. Balfour (Ed.), Routledge, London. pp 40-57
 

Linz, L. (1990) “The Perils of Presidentialism” Journal of Democracy, Winter 1990, pp. 51-69.
 

Magone, J. (2004) Contemporary Spanish Politics. Routledge, London. pp. 210 – 231.
 

Mata, J.M. “Terrorism and nationalist conflict: the weakness of democracy in the Basque Country”, in The Politics of Contemporary Spain, S. Balfour (Ed.), Routledge, London., pp. 81-105.

M?ndez, M. (2005)“The Socialist Party in government and in opposition”, in The Politics of Contemporary Spain, S. Balfour (Ed.), Routledge, London, pp. 169-197.
 

Moreno, L. (2001). “The Development of the Spanish National State”. The federalization of Spain.
London; Frank Cass, pp. 36-77.
 

Preston, P. (1996) The Triumph of Democracy in Spain. Routledge, London, pp. 1-53; 122-159.
 

Stepan, A. (1999) “Federalism and Democracy: Beyond the U.S. Model”, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 19-34.
 

Toharia, J. J. (2003) “The Organization, Functioning, and Evaluation of the Spanish Judicial System,
1975-2000: A Case Study in Legal Culture” in L. M. Friedman and R. P?rez-Perdomo (eds.), Legal culture in the age of globalization: Latin America and Latin Europe. Stanford, Stanford University Press, pp. 377-412.
 

Woodworth, P. (2005) “Using terror against terrorists: the Spanish experience”, in The Politics of
Contemporary Spain, S. Balfour (Ed.), Routledge, London.pp. 61-80.